an input-output assessment of employment, efficiency,income distribution and growth strategies
بهار 1383 - شماره 10 ISC (10 صفحه - از 5 تا 14)
This Paper has used a multisectoral input-output model of Iranian economy to examine the ability of different sectors of economy to create jobs per unit of output as well as capital. The results reveal that there is no conflict in a growth strategy that simultaneously attempts to improve efficiency i.e. reallocating production to sectors with low DRCs, equity and job creation. Although sectoral performance on these measures is not perfectly correlated, but in general we find good performance on equity associated with a relatively high degree of efficiency. The results of this paper led some interesting insights into the debate regarding distributive impact of structural adjustment in Iran. If Iran move closer to free trade regime with undistributed relative prices, it is reasonable to expect that the sectoral allocation of production would be altered in favor of these sectors in which Iran has comparative advantage. The measures of efficiency, domestic resource cost (DRC), provide an important benchmark for measuring comparative efficiency. Thus if Iran were to move closer to free trade, it is reasonable to expect that the composition of production should shift in favor of low DRC sectors. With respect to positive correlation between performance in efficiency (low DRC), employment, and income inequality, this implies that structural adjustment, by shifting the composition of production in favor of low DRC sectors, will contribute to better income distribution.
"Four kinds of data are required for model: 1) input –output table, 2) wages and capital by sector, 3) number of employer in different sectors, and DRC indices . ] 29-public services The numbers in parenthesis are ranks The second rows show the number of standard deviation from the mean* **DRCs are calculated on the basis of weighted exchange rate Source: Author’s calculation on the basis of 1993 input –output table of Iran, The Central BANK OF Iran, 2000 by using Excel program The results on total (Direct and indirect) labor coefficient reveals that professional public sector (sector 26), electricity (sector 15), insurance (sector25), trade (sector 22), real state (sector26), construction (sector 19) are associated with high total job creation. The table shows that sector with low wages, is linked to high job creation per unit of capital, given the relatively high correlation coefficient (. Table 2 also reveals that high paying sectors are associated with low job creation per unit of output or final demand sectors , their correlation coefficients are . The negative correlation between wages and DRC reveals that those sectors that generate a large share of income for low-income groups are also more efficient, because they use less domestic resource per unit of output. 213 Efficiency Source: Author `s calculation by using Reviews Summary and Conclusion Application of a multisectoral input- output model of Iranian economy, this paper has examined the ability of different sectors of economy to create jobs per unit of output as well as capital."
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