offset policy: an advanced countertrade practice
نویسنده: babaie zakliki، mohammad ali؛
پاییز 1383 - شماره 11 ISC (16 صفحه - از 5 تا 20)
کلید واژه های ماشینی : Offset، The Australian Government Offsets Program، Australia، Aus، Iran، Countertrade، Offsets Program Australian Defense Offsets، Australian Civil Offsets Program Australian، Australian Civil Offsets Program، Program Australian Defense Offsets Program
This paper explains offset and develops a strategic approach for the implementation of offset-policy for a buyer country. Offset emerges when a country cannot afford to pay cash for non-essential imports, and cannot get cash for many of its products. Offset arrangements are most frequently found in the defense-related sector. However, recently, it refers to a range of industrial and commercial compensation practices as well. The Australian experience showed that such policy contributes significantly to industry development and economic growth. Review of twenty-three offset cases showed that they had several features in common, including; maximized prospects of both seller and buyers, greater flexibility, complexity, creativity, and timely arrangements. These features require adopting a strategic approach for implementation. The process covers policy development, appointment of an executive committee, analysis of the country’s needs and priorities, call for proposals and bids, appraisal of offers, negotiation, publicity, agreement, and operation of offset arrangements. The article concludes that if Iran continues to spend its cash for financing large defense and civil projects it will only satisfy the vendors’ needs, not its own needs. Offset is common for such deals and is a superb trade vehicle. If properly is applied; it may solve both current needs and future goals.خلاصه ماشینی:
"The process covers policy development, appointment of an executive committee, analysis of the country’s needs and priorities, call for proposals and bids, appraisal of offers, negotiation, publicity, agreement, and operation of offset arrangements. The recent refinement seeks the following aims: · To improve Australian macroeconomic performance · To increase competitiveness in international business · To develop exports of high technology and high-value-added manufactured products · To create jobs through development of new export industries · To upgrade industrial and technological capability · To enhance self-reliance in supply of the defense force Four offset acquitted variants have existed . Characteristics of Offset Arrangements Offset policy, which is also called creative countertrade , focuses on the capability of the host country’s productive sector to create future goods or services for a new market. Critical Success Factors These features demand issues to be considered by the buyer countries in order to adopt and operate such a creative policy: · Careful preparation of the bidding process · Sophisticated negotiations and communications · Adopt a team work approach · Attention to cultural differences · Quality execution of the obligations · Long-term approach in planning These issues signal a holistic approach for such a complex task. In most developing countries such as Iran, there are several factors obstacles to the growth of the exports  including: · Poor quality of manufactured products · Outdated technology · Lack of international marketing skills · Low technical expertise These factors are in practice keeping Iran from competing with others in the international market, especially in the industrial sector."
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