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rational choice theoty :a cultural reconsideration

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(10 صفحه - از 57 تا 66)

Economists have heralded the formulation of the expected utility theorem as a universal method of choice under uncertainty. In their seminal paper, Stigler and Becker (Stigler & Becker, 1977) declared that “human behavior can be explained by a generalized calculus of utility-maximizing behavior” (p.76). The universality of the rational choice theory has been widely criticized by psychologists, political scientists, feminists, philosophers and other social thinkers. Tversky and Kahneman (1986) have shown that the framing of choice problems can influence the decisions. Herber Simon (1959) and James March (1958) have pioneered models of bounded rationality. Paula England (1993) refers to works of some feminist philosophers who believe that the concept of rationality is gender biased. This paper challenges the rational choice decision-making model from a cultural viewpoint. In brief, this article will show that the expected utility theorem, as a decision making model, is compatible with the cultural norms and values that are often found in capitalist societies from which they come. Consequently, the absence of certain cultural values in non-capitalistic societies will yield alternative decision models.

خلاصه ماشینی:

"This paper challenges the rational choice decision-making model from a cultural viewpoint. In brief, this article will show that the expected utility theorem, as a decision making model, is compatible with the cultural norms and values that are often found in capitalist societies from which they come. Consequently, the absence of certain cultural values in non-capitalistic societies will yield alternative decision models. If political culture is transmitted by acculturation, then such socialization assumes a function of stabilization within a society between generation and social groups (Cot & Mountier, 1974). W. Bush became president, he expressed philosophical principles that gave more than a hint of the political culture that emerged from this: I will never apologize for the United States of America. S. foreign-policy makers have tried, in vain to bring pace to the Middle East or change the behavior of the so called “rogue nations” by manipulating the cost (economic sanctions and military operation) and/ or the benefit (grants, loan, and aids) of the rational choice model. Therefore, a brief comparison between major cultural institutions of the United States and the Middle Eastern countries might shed light on political quagmire that the United States faces in the Middle East. Freedom of choice in the market place requires a political system that guarantees individual freedoms with minimum government intervention and social restraint. The action of the militant students and the support of the Iranian government cannot be explained by the rational choice model."

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