بهار 1384 - شماره 13 ISC (22 صفحه - از 43 تا 64)
کلید واژه های ماشینی : Iran، Integrated Environmental Economic Accounting، Environment، GNP، Environmental، The Degree Environmental Degradation Iran، Degradation، National Accounting Matrix Environmental Accounts، National Accounts، The System Environmental Economic Accounts
During recent years several attempts have been made to incorporate environmental and natural resources degradation into national accounts. GNP as measured by the traditional system of national accounts does not consider environmental degradation caused by inefficient exploitation of natural resources. While the complete omission of environmental impacts is not possible, there could be an optimal level of environmental degradation. However, environmental degradation cannot be quantified easily. Therefore, there is a need for a different approach to estimate the level of environmental degradation so that it can be accounted for in the GNP. In such cases where sufficient data are not available, especially for the past, the fuzzy logic method is practical. This paper applies the fuzzy set theory to estimate the trends of environmental degradation in Iran in the period 1959-1998.خلاصه ماشینی:
"GNP as measured by the traditional system of national accounts does not consider environmental degradation caused by inefficient exploitation of natural resources. This paper applies the fuzzy set theory to estimate the trends of environmental degradation in Iran in the period 1959-1998. Keywords: Environmental Degradation, Fuzzy Sets, Green GNP, National Accounts, Exhaustible Resources, Renewable Resources *- Department of Economics, Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran, Iran. The depletion and degradation of environmental resources could be regarded as loss of natural capital and subtracted from GNP to reach an environmentally-adjusted GNP (ENP), where: ENP=GNP- Environmental Costs Environmental National Product (ENP) is the highest aggregate value of final goods and services produced within a given period by domestically-owned factors of production and environmental capital in current prices (Choi, 1994). Because of its systematic approach to handling vague and multi-dimensional situations, the use of linguistic values based on the Fuzzy Logic (FL) methodology seems more suitable for computing environmental degradation (Munda, et al. Table 3 : The Fuzzy Decision Making Rules Rule Number Renewable resources index Exhaustible resources index Environmental degradation Support degree 1 E E VB 1 2 E H VB 0. As the trend shows during the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988) and the oil shock periods (1973 and 1979) in which pressure on natural resources and environment is greater, the environmental degradation is high. Fig 9: The Degree of Environmental Degradation in Iran 6- Conclusion GNP in national accounts is used to measure the macroeconomic performance. Fig 9: The Degree of Environmental Degradation in Iran 6- Conclusion GNP in national accounts is used to measure the macroeconomic performance."
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