زمستان 1384 - شماره 43 علمی-پژوهشی (وزارت بهداشت)/ISC (12 صفحه - از 476 تا 487)
کلیدواژه ها : ADHD ،mental health ،crime ،students ،parents ،depression ،California Psychological Inventory ،standardization ،Iranstandardization ،reading level diagnostic test ،readingschizophrenia ،offspring ،CBCL ،CGASschizophrenia ،caregiver ،psychological well-being ،burden ،antipsychoticmania ،clinical features ،demographic characteristics ،clinical manifestationsorgan donation ،brain death ،grief ،familyepidemiology ،conduct disorder ،attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ،Rutter’s Questionnaire ،Iran: neurological soft signs ،prison inmate ،handednessPMT ،CPRS ،PCRSpersonality ،adherence ،health belief model ،diabetes mellitus ،NEO-FFI: stress ،managers of medical centers ،society healthmotivation ،motivational deficiencies
Introduction: The California Psychological Inventory was developed for assessing personality characteristics of a normal population. This instrument has been standardized in different count- ries and has been used to assess academic success, managerial skills, creativity, maladjust-ment, antisocial behavior, and vulnerability to situational stress. The aim of this study was to standardize this questionnaire for the Iranian population. Method: This study was of standardization type. After translation into Farsi and back trans-lation, the final form was prepared and administered to 1008 subjects (911 males, 97 females) who were selected via random stratified sampling procedure from the sites of a government department in nine provinces. The mean age of the subjects was 40.7 (S.D. 7.7) Cronbach’s alpha procedure and test-retest method was used to assess the reliability, and factor analysis was utilized to determine the validity of the questionnaire. Results: The alpha coefficients for the questionnaire ranged from 0.30 for the F/M scale to 0.83 for the V3 scale with a median of 0.60. The overall alpha coefficient for the whole ques-tionnaire was 0.95. The Pearson correlation coefficient for the test-retest on 50 subjects after two weeks ranged from 0.47 for communality to 0.85 for independence scales. The factor analysis revealed three factors which were named Control, Extroversion, and Flexibility.Conclusion: The Persian version of the California Psychological Inventory has acceptable reli- ability and validity for the Iranian sample.Introduction: Early diagnosis of school children with dyslexia has an important role in the pre- vention of its harmful consequences. This research was carried out with the aim of construc-tion, standardization and the assessment of the validity and reliability of reading level diagnostic test for third grade primary school children in the city of Isfahan.Method: Five hundred sixty nine third grade primary school children who were recruited using multi-stage random sampling method, were examined in this study. Reading level diagnostic test includes six subtests and assesses school children with regard to correct reading, comprehen-sion and phonological awareness. First, in a pilot study the questions included in the test were analyzed and corrected according to psychometric standards. Then, to assess the validity of the test, the correlation of test scores with the average grade and IQ, the correlation of the subtest scores with each other, the assessment of change in test scores along with the rise in the level of education, and the assessment of the difference in test scores between the dyslexic and the nor- mal group was used, and also test-retest reliability was assessed.Results: The best subtests with regard to validity include oral reading, sentence completion and homogeneity, and the subtests comprehension 1 and comprehension 2 were the weakest in this regard. Also, in the assessment of the reliability of the subtests, oral reading subtest had the high- est, and comprehension 1 had the lowest reliability. Conclusion: Reading level diagnostic test is an appropriate tool for the assessment of reading skills in third grade primary school children.Introduction: In view of the fact that psychiatric disorders of parents can affect the behavior of their offspring, this study was carried out to assess the emotional and behavioral status of 6-16 year old offspring of patients with schizophrenia. Method: In an observational comparative study, using convenience sampling, the emotional and behavioral status of 100, 6-16 year old offspring from one hundred families with one schizo-phrenic parent, referred to psychiatric clinic of Iran and Hazrat Rasool Akram Hospitals, were compared with 100, 6-16 year old offspring of one hundred families with two healthy parents, referred to the dentistry clinic of the same centers. The comparison was carried out by means of the Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL) and the Child Global Assessment Scale (CGAS).Results: There was significant difference in the mean scores of CBCL and CGAS between the two groups.Conclusion: Schizophrenia in parents can affect the emotional and behavioral status in their off- spring.Conclusion: By a better control of positive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia, clozapine could possibly be effective in reducing burden and maintaining psychological well-being. Introduction: Considering the importance of demographic and epidemiological characteristics of patients with bipolar disorder in the course and prognosis of this disorder, this study was conducted to investigate the relationship between clinical features of bipolar I patients in a manic phase with demographic and some epidemiological features.Method: One hundred inpatients (65 men, 35 women) in a manic phase were selected using Con- venience Sampling. Diagnosis was made by means of clinical interview based on DSM-IV-TR criteria for diagnosis. The severity of illness was determined by hospitalization days and General Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scores. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, ana- lysis of variance and t-test.Results: This study showed that the mean duration of hospitalization was higher for women (44.7 days) than for men (33.5 days). Also, there was a reverse correlation between GAF score and the number of hospitalization days. Conclusion: The mean duration of hospitalization was higher for women in comparison with men. The lower the GAF score at the time of admission, the higher the number of hospitalization days.Introduction: The fact that some of the organs of a brain dead patient are still living, might make it difficult for the patient’s family to shift from denial to the acceptance of the patient’s death. Therefore, the present study was carried out to compare depression between two groups of fa-milies of brain dead patients (namely donor and non-donor) and the degree of their satisfac-tion of the medical organization.Method: This is a descriptive-cross sectional study. The subjects consisted of first-degree rela- tives of brain dead patients. Fifty four subjects from 27 donor families and 104 subjects from 58 non-donor families were selected using the counting method. These subjects had lost at least one of their first-degree relatives because of brain death, between the years 1380 and 1384 in the province of Tehran. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and Beck Depres-sion Inventory (BDI). The data were analyzed using descriptive statistical methods.Results: Depression was present in 20.4% of donor and 17.3% of non-donor families; but the di- fference was not statistically significant. The comparison of the degree of depression between the families of donor patients and the non-donor patients as well as their spouses and children also did not show any significant difference. Nevertheless, 66% and 32% of the donor relatives con- sidered ‘organ donation’ to be completely effective and effective to some degree in overcoming grief, respectively. Conclusion: Organ donation does not have an effect on the degree of later depression and the course of grief in the relatives of brain dead patients. Introduction: Considering the damaging effects of hyperactivity in personal and social life, this study was conducted to identify the epidemiology of hyperactivity and conduct disorders in school children aged 7 to 11 in the city of sirjan. Method: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study, and the target population was primary school children studying in the academic years 1378-79. Subjects comprised 322 boys and 334 girls. Sampling was done using sample size formula with random-clustering sampling. Data were gathered with Rutter’s Questionnaire, and were analyzed using analysis of variance, (2 statis-tical test, and t-test. Results: ADHD was found in 8.6% of male and 7.78% of female subjects in both teachers and parents questionnaires. According to Rutter’s Parent Questionnaire, conduct disorder was 8.7% in girls and 13.1% in boys. The prevalence was significantly different between the two sexes. Results obtained from the Teacher Questionnaire also showed the presence of conduct disorder in 19.5% of girls and 29.3% of boys.Conclusion: The prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder is high among the studied school children and this corresponds with other studies. Introduction: Due to the importance of the relation between neurological and behavioral dis-orders, this study was designed to compare the frequency of Neurological Soft Signs (NSS) and their different domains between a group of male prison inmates and a group of male non-prisoner subjects. Method: In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 351 male prison inmates (including 54 with monet- ary crimes, 74 with violent crimes, 71 with non-violent crimes, 72 with crimes related to addiction, and 80 with crimes related to debauchery) were randomly selected, and were compared to 80 non-prisoner males using a demographic questionnaire and a neurological assessment measure.Results: The total NSS score was higher in prisoners than in non-prisoners. The difference was most evident in the domains of sensory integration, eye movements and glabellar tap reflex. Non- violent, addiction related, and monetary subgroups showed the most and the violent subgroup showed the least difference from the non-prisoner group. Conclusion: A uniform relation between NSS and the type of crime in different groups cannot be expected. Introduction: Due to the side effects of therapeutic drugs and their short-lived effects in the treat- ment of ADHD, this study was carried out to assess the efficiency of Parent Management Train- ing for parents of preschoolers with the mentioned disorder, in the decrease in symptoms.Method: This study was conducted in the children’s psychiatric clinic of Iran Psychiatric Hospital from Aban 1381 to Shahrivar 1382. Eighteen preschoolers (12 boys, 6 girls) with ADHD were selected by means of the convenience sampling method. They were then assessed using Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS) and Parent-Child Relationship Scale (PCRS). Results were ana-lyzed with paired sample t-test. Results: CPRS and PCRS scores showed significant difference before and after behavioral manage- ment training to the parents. Conclusion: Parent Management Training could be effective in the reduction of symptoms in pre- schoolers with ADHD.Introduction: The attitude towards medical recommendations can lead both to recovery or debility of patients and can therefore affect medical outcome. The present study was carried out with the aim of determining the relation between personality type and the amount of adherence to re-commended therapeutic regimens in patients with type II diabetes referred to Diabetes Re-search Center in the province of Isfahan. Method: Two hundred and fifty diabetic patients taking hypoglycemic agents with or without insulin were recruited using Nonprobability Sampling Method. A demographic questionnaire and information obtained from the interview were used to assess NEO-FFI Questionnaire, Degree of Adherence Questionnaire and the Diabetic Activity Questionnaire. The data were analyzed through one way analysis of variance, correlation coefficient and general linear model. Results: Neuroticism showed a negative but statistically non-significant correlation with patients’ adherence to therapeutic regimens. Also, extraversion and conscientiousness showed a positive and significant correlation with adherence. After excluding the effect of some qualitative and quantitative alternatives using the general linear model test, it was shown that extraversion and social support have the highest effect.Conclusion: Personality characteristics can affect the adherence of patients. Adherence is decreas- ed or increased with the decrease or increase in extraversion. Also, extraversion and social support have the highest effect on adherence. Introduction: Due to detrimental effects of work among managers of health and medical centers, this research was carried out to assess factors causing stress among managers of public medical centers in Tehran. Method: This experiment was descriptive cross-sectional and was carried out by means of Luthans questionnaire. The subjects consisted of 94 managers of public medical centers in Tehran (all managers who were willing to complete the questionnaire). The results were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: "Excessive sense of responsibility" was among the most important personal stressful factors, "problems regarding inflation and cost of living" among the most important familial factors, "low budget and lack of equipment and facilities" among the most important occupa-tional factors, and finally, "environmental pollution" and "unawareness of clients of social, cultural and economic standards" were the most important socioeconomic and cultural stressful factors among the managers of medical centers. Conclusion: The most important stressful factors among managers of medical centers consist of low budget and lack of equipment and facilities.Introduction: This study was carried out to determine the most important risk factors of moti-vational deficiencies among university students. Method: Two hundred seventy two students (124 males, 148 females) aged 18-25 from different colleges of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences in the city of Yazd took part in this study. The employed questionnaire incorporated four groups of motivational factors including pri- mary and secondary physiological motivations, motivations for psychosocial development, spiri- tual motivations and motivations based on educational needs. The obtained data were analyzed using means ranking and analysis of variance. Results: The findings of this study indicated that anticipation of no appropriate access to primary and secondary physiological needs such as accessing welfare services, favorable future job and income, as well as students’ dissatisfaction with the university’s present educational level and fa- cilities have all equally led to remarkable motivational deficiencies. Conclusion: Motivational deficiencies may potentially lead to pessimism, anxiety and depression as well as poor academic performance in students.
"R. Shojaie** Abstract Keywords: ___________________________________________________________________________ * Clinical Psychologist, Assistant Professor of Iran University of Medical Science. Poshtmashadi** Abstract Introduction: Due to the effect of symptoms of patients with schizophrenia on the psycholo-gical well-being of their caregivers, this study was carried out to assess the effect of treatment with clozapine and conventional antipsychotics on the caregivers’ burden and well-being. Keywords: ___________________________________________________________________________ * Psychiatrist, Assistant Professor, Iran University of Medical Sciences. M. Ghoreishizadeh** Abstract Keywords: ___________________________________________________________________________ * Psychiatrist, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. G. Golestani*** Abstract Keywords: ___________________________________________________________________________ * Psychiatrist, Iran University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Hazrat Rasool Hospital, Niyayesh St. Shafizadeh** Abstract Keywords: ___________________________________________________________________________ * Psychiatrist, Assistant Professor, Kerman University of Medical Sciences. Khajeddin** Abstract Keywords: ___________________________________________________________________________ * Psychiatrist, Iran University of Medical Sciences and Health Services. Jafarpour** Abstract Keywords ___________________________________________________________________________ * Ophthalmologist, Professor, Iran University of Medical Sciences and Health Services."
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