بهار 1385 - شماره 44 علمی-پژوهشی (وزارت بهداشت) (10 صفحه - از 82 تا 91)
Introduction: In this study, the effectiveness of contingency management and cognitive-be-havioral therapy on the treatment of patients with opiate dependence receiving naltrexone main-tenance treatment, was evaluated. Method: Patients with opiate dependence between ages 20 to 49 who were receiving naltrexone maintenance treatment (n=90) were randomly assigned for 16 weeks to one of three conditions: naltrexone alone, naltrexone with contingency management, and naltrexone with cognitive be-havioral therapy. Patients were evaluated with Addiction severity Index before the beginning of treatment interventions. The three groups were again evaluated after the interventions, using the same checklist. The results were analyzed using Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), one-way analysis of variance, and Tukey follow-up test. Results: Significant differences were found among the three groups with regard to Addiction Se- verity Index scores, attrition and compliance. The resultant significant statistical differences in- dicate the effectiveness of contingency management and cognitive-behavioral therapy approaches in treatment of opiate dependence. Conclusion: Contingency management has an early effect on lowering drug abuse, but its effects are reduced after treatment. The effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy remain until months after the cessation of treatment.Introduction: This study investigated the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral techniques in the treatment of men with erectile dysfunction / performance anxiety type. Method: Five male patients and their wives participated in a single case experiment with multiple baseline design for 9-11 sessions over a 2-3 month period. The subjects were selected using con- venience sampling. Following the establishment of baselines for the dependent variables, they entered the treatment program in order. Improvement index for each variable was considered to be a fall in the curve during treatment period. The instruments used in the study included clinical interview, Subjective Unit Distress (SUD) for assessing sexual anxiety, daily log sheet to record erection, Illogical Beliefs Inventory and Couple Motive Rating Scale.Results: Cognitive-behavioral techniques were effective in decreasing sexual anxiety and mala- daptive beliefs, and increasing erection time.Conclusion: Cognitive-behavioral techniques are effective in the treatment of erectile dysfunc- tion / performance anxiety typeIntroduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of liothyronine on reduce-ing memory impairment in patients receiving electroconvulsive therapy (ECT).Method: Based on a double blind experimental design, 40 clinically depressed ECT candidate women (age range 20-50) were selected and randomly allocated to experimental and control groups. After carrying out a memory test, the experimental group was allocated to liothyro-nine and the control group was allocated to vitamin B12. After six sessions of bilateral ECT on a three per week basis, both groups underwent the same memory tests and the results were com-pared. Results: The difference in memory in the experimental group was significant, but in the control group was not significant, before and after ECT. Conclusion: In depressed ECT candidate patients, liothyronine prescription can reduce memory impairment.Introduction: Regarding the effects of socio-economic factors on child upbringing, and the role of rearing methods on thought, behavior, and academic and social achievements, this study aimed to examine the influence of socio-cultural context on parenting style, academic achievement, and learning style in the city of Tehran. Method: In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 240 eighth grade students (120 males, 120 females) from the southern, central, and northern parts of Tehran were selected using cluster multistage sampling. To assess the socio-cultural background, four demographic factors including place of residence, number of children, parents’ place of birth, and parents’ education were employed. The Parental Authority Questionnaire was used to assess rearing method. Also, learning style was assessed with Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory. Academic achievement was assessed using the grade average of final exams. Results were analyzed using statistical analysis of variance, Scheffe post hoc test, multifactor regression, and Pearson correlation test.Results: The authoritative parenting style was more prevalent in city southern parts. There was positive and significant correlation between authoritative parenting style and higher academic grades. ANOVA showed that the authoritative parenting cultivate theorist learning style. Conclusion: In families residing in Tehran, socio-cultural background is related to child rearing method. Families residing in the southern parts of the city use more authoritarian approaches. Child rearing method is also correlated with learning method and academic achievement of child- ren. Authoritative parenting appeared to cultivate "theorist" learning style and promote better aca- demic achievementIntroduction: To compare the coping mechanisms of 15-17 year-old inhabitants of "Tehran Correction and Rehabilitation Center" and 15-17 year-old high school students of area 6 in Tehran. Method: In a cross-sectional descriptive study all 105 inhabitants of the center (81 males and 24 females) and 372 high school students (181 males and 191 females) who were randomly selected from area 6 of Tehran schools completed the "Adolescent Coping Scale" which consists of 18 strategies and 3 styles. Results were analyzed using ANOVA and t-test. Results: Non-delinquent males and females used productive style more than reference to others, and reference to others more than nonproductive style. Delinquent males used productive style and reference to others without significant difference, and also used these two styles signi-ficantly more than nonproductive style. Delinquent females used all three styles without signi-ficant difference. Delinquent males used all three styles significantly more than non-delinquent males. Delinquent females used productive style less, nonproductive style more and reference to others without significant difference from non-delinquent females. Conclusion: In comparison with delinquent females, delinquent males have a more compre-hensive set of coping skills and can use external resources more effectively. Delinquent females use a very dysfunctional collection of coping mechanisms, which may have caused their vulner- ability to social pathologies. Introduction: To compare some characteristics of social problem solving skills between normal schoolchildren and children with learning disabilities in the city of Tehran.Method: Sixty primary school children (30 normal students and 30 students with learning dis- ability) from third, fourth, and fifth grades were assessed. The group with learning disabilities was selected using convenience sampling and the normal group was selected using randomized clustering method. The samples were matched for age, gender, grade, and IQ. The data were gathered using interviews with teachers, school and clinic files, Raven’s progressive Matrices, and the Test of Ambiguous Provocation Situations via individual interviews. Data were analyzed using independent t-test and (2 test.Results: The two groups showed significant difference regarding problem-solving goal, un-pleasant feelings toward peers, and self-efficacy in maintaining an assertive reputation.Conclusion: The findings showed that children with learning disabilities do not follow sociability goals such as problem solving in social problem-solving situations. Their social goals and self- efficacy perceptions usually end in withdrawal or aggressive responsesIntroduction: The present study was carried out to assess the relation between the impact of per- ception of locus of control and burnout syndrome in psychiatric nurses. Method: In a cross-sectional study, all nurses of Iran Psychiatric Hospital were evaluated using Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and Rotter I-E Scale. The data were analyzed by (2 and Pearson Correlation Test. Results: The extent of burnout in nurses was average for emotional exhaustion, low for deper- sonalization and average for personal accomplishment. The level of burnout between two groups of internal and external locus of control had statistically meaningful differences and higher rates of burnout were found in subjects with external locus of control. Rotter I-E Scale score was ne- gatively associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. The score was positively associated with age and years of working in that position. Emotional exhaustion was positively associated with hours of work. Conclusion: Perception of locus of control score is predictive of the risk of burnoutIntroduction: Given the role of opioids and their antagonists on dopamine secretion, the effect of naltrexone use in the treatment of schizophrenia was evaluated in this study. Method: In a double blind placebo controlled clinical trial study on a group of 34 patients with schizophrenia on maintenance therapy with antipsychotics, 17 patients received naltrexone (50 mg, BID) and 17 patients received placebo (BID). The patients were evaluated at the start of the trial, as well as three and six weeks after, using Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS).Results: Patients receiving naltrexone showed improvement in positive symptoms from week three to week six, and improvement in negative symptoms from week one to week three.Conclusion: Naltrexone had no significant effect on positive or negative symptoms of schizo-phrenia compared to placeboIntroduction: To determine the prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in the psychiatric history of parents of ADHD children. Method: With the aid of convenience sampling, parents of 150 children (31 girls and 119 boys) with ADHD who were referred to the children and adolescent psychiatric clinics of Iran Univer- sity of Medical Sciences in the years 2002 and 2003 were assessed. Diagnosis for children was made by clinical judgment and DSM-IV criteria checklist. The history of this disorder in the parents was assessed by DSM-IV criteria checklist and clinical psychiatric interviews. Data were ana-lyzed using descriptive analytical methods. Results: A positive childhood history of ADHD symptoms was found in 76% of the parents. In 20% of cases both parents, and in 56% one parent had a positive history. The prevalence of fa- thers with a positive history (56%) was higher than mothers (40%).Conclusion: Hereditary factors may be involved in the etiology of ADHDIntroduction: The objective of the current investigation was to introduce the metacognitive model of obsession and to Explore the efficacy and effectiveness of this model in the treatment of ob- sessive compulsive disorder.Method: In a single-subject experimental trial of multiple baseline type, the treatment process was carried out on a female subject. The subject was assessed at both pretreatment (baseline) and post treatment (eighth session) using Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS), Subjective Unit Distress (SUD), Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS), Thought Control Questionnaire (TCQ) and Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI). In addition, the first three scales were again completed by the subject at the first, fourth, and follow-up sessions.Results: The score of the subject decreased from 38 at pre-intervention to eight at post-inter-vention in the Y-BOCS. There was also a reduction in her depression, anxiety, and stress. The sub- ject’s score decreased from nine at pre-intervention to three at post-intervention. Conclusion: The treatment approach based on Wells’ metacognitive model was effective in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder.
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