تابستان 1386 - شماره 49 علمی-پژوهشی (وزارت بهداشت) (13 صفحه - از 203 تا 215)
کلیدواژه ها : first-episode psychosis ،neurological soft sings ،schizophreniaobsessive-compulsive disorder ،schizophrenia ،clinical interview ،Maudsley Inventorymarital satisfaction ،pharmacologic treatment ،cognitive-behavioral therapies ،supportive psychotherapy ،infertilityetiology ،epidemiology ،psychotic disorders ،mood disorders ،social factorsrunaway girls ،identity ،identity status: menopause ،education ،depression ،anxietyintensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy ،resistance ،transference ،twin factor ،challenge to resistancecontrol-related beliefs ،externalizing psychopathology ،internalizing psychopathology ،childrenadult attachment style ،job satisfaction ،job stress ،nurses ،estate hospitalsemotional intelligence ،mental health ،trainingemotional intelligence ،problem-solving styles ،helplessness ،confidence ،general healthattributional styles ،students ،giftedheadache ،migraine ،muscle relaxation ،cognitive restructuring ،hypnosis
کلید واژه های ماشینی :
Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate and compare neurological soft signs (NSS) in patients with first episode psychosis, in their first-degree relatives, and in healthy control subjects. Method: Thirty patients with first-episode psychosis, 30 of their first-degree relatives, and 30 healthy controls were evaluated by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) for psychiatric assessment. Neurological Evaluation Scale (NES) was used for the evaluation of NSS, and Edinburgh Handedness Inventory (EHI) for laterality assessment. Data were analyzed by the following statistical tests: Chi-square, t-test, Fisher’s Exact Test, Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test, and non-parametric tests of Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney. Results: First-episode psychotic patients had significantly higher NES total scores than the first-degree relatives, and the control group. On "sequencing of complex motor acts", "motor coordination", and "sensory integration" subscales of the NES, patients had significantly higher scores than the controls (respective p-values of <0.01, <0.001, & <0.01). Patients had significantly higher scores than their relatives on "motor coordination", and "eye movements" (p-values <0.05). There were no significant differences in NSS between the first-degree relatives and healthy controls on NES total scores. Conclusion: A higher prevalence of NSS occurs in patients with first-episode psychosis than in their relatives or healthy control subjects. Neurological soft signs are part of a neural dysfunction that underlies psychosis rather than the consequence of a neurodegene-rative processes caused by the disease.Objectives: This study plans to determine diagnostic features and the best cut-off point in Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory for patients with schizophrenia. Method: In a cross-sectional study, 96 inpatients (56 men and 40 women) with schizophrenia (based on DSM-IV diagnostic criteria) were selected from Iran Psychiatry Hospital (in Tehran) by convenient sampling and screened for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder using standard clinical interview (SCID) and Maudsley Inventory. Results: Based on the clinical interview, 47 patients (49%) were diagnosed to have obsessive-compulsive symptoms. In the Maudsley Inventory, 38 patients (40%) scored above the given cut-off point (score of 9). The sensitivity and specificity of the Maudsley Inventory were 74.5% and 93.9% respectively. Conclusion: Despite the high specificity of Maudsley Inventory, the clinical interview is preferred over it because of higher sensitivity and the number of true-positive diagnoses.Conclusion: Considering the high frequency of marital conflicts in infertile couples and effectiveness of psychiatric interventions, one must take psychiatric therapies and psychotherapy in these patients serious enough to rely on. This will lead to a better mental health and improve their quality of life.Results: There were significant differences between the three variables of social class (p<0.05), marital status (p<0.05), and family history (p<0.01), and the type of disorder. Results of logistic regression analysis showed that out of all considered variables in the model, two variables of social class and family history could predict the type of mental disorder. Conclusion: A correlation exists between the socio-economical status of the patients with the distribution of psychotic and mood disorders.Objectives: Regarding the importance of young girls running away from home and its social and family consequences, present paper studies the relationship between the identity status and girls' runaway from home. Method: Research method was descriptive and ex post facto. Convenient sampling method was used in which 20 runaway girls who were resided in Toos Well-being Centre, Mashhad were selected as well as 20 normal age and scholastic grade matched girls as their control group. Mean age was 16.9 years (SD=2.88). Second revised version of the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status (EOM-EIS-II) was used to explore identity status. T-test, point-biserial correlation, Pearson correlation, and Spearman’s rank correlation were used to analyze the data. Results: Mean scores on diffusion identity status was significantly higher than normal controls (p<0.01). A significant correlation existed also between the age and foreclosure identity status (p<0.05). Conclusion: The less the individual experienced identity crisis and developed a lesser commitment, the more she would be prone to attempt at running away from home.Objectives: The aim of this project was to evaluate the efficacy of educating husbands of menopausal women about the signs and complications of menopause on depression and anxiety of women during menopausal period. Method: In this clinical trial, 102 women aged 45-60 yrs were randomly assigned to two test and control groups. First, both groups completed individual demographic questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, and Spiell-Berger Anxiety Inventory. Then husbands of test group participated in the face-to-face educational sessions about the signs and complications of menopause. A month later, all clients completed Beck Depression Inventory and Spiell-berger Anxiety Inventory again. Results: There was not any significant statistical difference between the two groups in the depression and anxiety scores mean. Mean score for depression was lower in the test group than the control group after the intervention; the two groups differed significantly in this regard (p<0.05). Evaluation of anxiety score one month after the education also showed that the mean score of anxiety was significantly lower in the test group than the control (p<0.001). Conclusion: Education of husbands about the signs and effects of menopause can have a significant reduction in the levels of dep-ression and anxiety during menopausal period.Conclusion: In the intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy, pressure toward experiencing feelings, clarification of defenses, and challenge to the resistance lead to intensification of transference feelings which is more intensive in patients with personality disorders. So paying attention to both transference and resistance in psychotherapy is essential. If the resistance and transference twin factor is not considered and challenged, the therapeutic alliance will not be then activated against the resistance, the therapist and the patient will not be able to access major material of the therapy, and the therapy process will be deviated. This problem is more important in patients with personality disorders.Objectives: This study aimed to examine the relationship between control-related beliefs with the internalizing and externalizing psy-chopathology in children. Method: In this ex post facto study, 80 children with internalizing and externalizing disorders who were referred to the counseling clinic and private offices were selected on a convenient sampling method then classified under two psychopathology groups. The control group was selected from 40 children matched in age and sex with the affected subjects. Three scales were used for measuring control-related beliefs in three academic, behavioral and social domains: The Perceived Control Scale, Perceived Contingency Scale, and the Perceived Competence Scale. Multi-variate analysis of variance and descriptive statistics were used for statistical analysis. Results: This study revealed significant differences in the control- and competence-related beliefs under the academic, behavioral and social domains between the internalizing and externalizing psychopathology groups and the normal control group (p<0.001). In competence beliefs, there were significant differences between the internalizing and externalizing psychopathology groups under the behavioral domain (p<0.001). No significant differences was observed in the belief of contingency between the three groups. Conclusion: Control and competence beliefs are specific for internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and can differentiate mentally healthy states from psychopathology. Contingency belief does not have a significant correlation with psychopathology. Behavioral competence belief can differentiate externalizing from internalizing group and is considered specific for externalizing psychopathology states.Objectives: As attachment styles are crucial to the communicative features specially intimacy, satisfaction, and commitment, the relation-ship between adult attachment styles with job satisfaction and job stress was investigated in nurses in the Isfahan state hospitals. Method: In this cross-sectional study, 160 nurses (95 women and 65 men) working in the state hospitals in Isfahan were selected by a stepwise randomized sampling as subjects of the study. Mean age was 33 years (SD=2.7 for men and 1.9 for women) in men and women. Data were collected using Adult Attachment Inventory, Job Satisfaction-Dissatisfaction Scale, and Job Stress Scale and then analyzed by correlational and stepwise regression statistical analysis. Results: Mean total scores for subjects with secure, avoidant, and ambivalent attachment styles were measured to be respectively 11.1 (SD=5), 9.00 (SD=4.2), and 8.1 (4.4). Correlation coefficient between job stress and scores for secure and avoidant attachment styles were- 0.71 (p<0.05) and 0.69 (p<0.05) respectively. Conclusion: Level of stress is less in subjects with secure attachment styles than in subjects with avoidant and ambivalent attachment styles. Attachment style can well predict job satisfaction and job stress.Objectives: Current study is investigating the effects of teaching emotional intelligence factors on the enhancement of mental health. Method: In this experimental design, 30 male and female clients within the 20-25 years of age who had presented to the counseling centres were first selected and randomly put into two study and control groups. After pre-testing the two groups by the 133-item Bar-on Emotional Intelligence Test and SCL-90-R, the study group was provided with 12 weekly 2-hours training sessions on the emotional intelligence factors. Post-testing of the two groups was then conducted. Results: Treated data through co-variance analysis and one-way multivariate analysis of variance showed that training on the emotional intelligence factors was significantly effective in the improvement of mental health (p<0.001) and has reduced symptoms in mental health disorders. Conclusion: Training on the emotional intelligence factors promotes mental health and the individual will score higher in the personal reports of internal situations and in feeling capable of facing the problems.Conclusion: There is a significant relationship between emotional intelligence and problem-solving styles with the general health.Objectives: The present study aims to compare attributional styles and mental health of gifted vs. normal students. It also investigates the existing relationships between these variables. Method: In this post hoc descriptive survey, 60 gifted students (30 boys and 30 girls selected by a random sampling method) and 60 normal students (30 boys and 30 girls selected by a cluster sampling method) were enrolled. Raven’s Progressive Matrices Test, Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ), and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) were used for data collection. Analysis of the data was carried out using regression, one-way and multivariate analysis of variance, and t-test. Results: It was found that internal-external attributional style in gifted male students can predict status of mental health. There were significant differences between the two boys and girls student groups in the internal–external and global-specific attributional styles of unfavorable events. A significant difference was also noted between the two groups of gifted and normal students in the global-specific attributional style of unfavorable events. Assessment of mental health, too, disclosed a significant difference between the two normal and gifted student groups in the social dysfunctioning feature. Conclusion: Gifted students had a global attributional style and female students had an external and specific attributional style in failure situations. Gifted students were also found to suffer more from social dysfunctioning than the normal students.Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of muscle relaxation and cognitive restructuring by alert hypnosis on women with common migraine who had not responded appropriately to the medication. Method: Using a single-case study, we randomly selected 6 women with migraine from those referring to the psychiatry and psychology centres in the city Borazjan. They were assessed by a clinical interview, Measurement Scale of Pain Power, Measurement Scale of Pain Distress, Mcguil Questionnaire of Pain, and Beck’s Depression and Anxiety Inventory. We treated them after a primary evaluation (baseline) by muscle relaxation method and cognitive restructuring under alert hypnosis. Study data are displayed in charts and descriptive statistics. Results: Findings showed that this treatment modality generally can reduce the frequency, duration of attacks, severity, and distress of the pain in migraine. We observed maximum reductions in the severity and distress of the pain. Significant improvement was noted in five out of six subjects and it even increased in the 3 months and a half of follow-up; although one subject showed a slight improvement. The associated depression and anxiety with the migraine headache also showed significant reduction in all subjects. Conclusion: Relaxation and cognitive restructuring under alert hypnosis can be effective in reducing the severity and distress of the migraine pain in the affected patients.
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