") Shi,ite scholars mainly believe that the number of original sources of traditions (''''usuËl) amounts to four-hundred which have loeen compiled in books by four-hundred transmitters, who were mostly companions of Imam Sadigh (a. Reviewing the article, the translator surveys each of the principal sources used by the author and argues that unlike the author''''s opinion, the theory of the belief in twelve Imams and that of occultation of the twelfth Imam have been raised in the earliest Imami sources, the former explicitly and the latter implicitly. Finally, relying on historical evidence, the translator has developed a new attitude towards whys and hows of a more extensive approach to the theory of the belief in "twelve Imams" and occultation of the twelfth Imam in the sources of the fourth Century of Hidjra. Studying the translated text along with the introduction of it leads to the fact that similar cases between classes of fallacies in the old and modern logic are not rare. A Criticism on A Theory of the Rise of Ithná-Ashariyyá Shiîsm Etan kohlberg, a Jewish orientalist in his article From Imamiyya to IthnaË-Ashariyy- (the second supplement), after a historical survey of the belief in twelve Imams in shiite texts, has demonstrated the validity of this belief by the fact that the early Shiite scholars have made use of approaches such as reasoning based on the Holy Quran, Sunni traditions, the Scriptures and Jewish traditions. Bureaus and Departments of the Center: Bureau For Research and Studies on Culture and Communication Dept."
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