The Paradox of Utilitarianism in Hard Times: A Critical Approach
کلید واژه های ماشینی :
The Victorian Age is Paradoxical in England. On the one hand, it is the age of skepticism and pessimism. On the other hand, it is the period of prosperity and optimism. The philosophy of utilitarianism makes a good manifestation of this paradox. And Charles Dickens is pessimistic about utilitarianism, for he believes it is abused in the Victorian England. To see how Dickens illustrates abused utilitarianism, this article examines Hard Times (1989), a novel that is, as Ronald Carter and John Mcrae (2004) assert, "in many fields the most accessible critique of the society he [Dickens] lived in (253). It will discuss the educational, social, and economic aspects of utilitarianism as exemplified in the novel. For each aspect it will deliver some manifestations. Regarding the educational system, the focus is on the ideas that Dickens'''' society is deeply negligent of the logic of the heart, and that the people are denied individuality. Regarding the social aspect the focus is on the ideas of law corruption and individual alienation. And regarding the economic aspect, the ideas of widespread poverty and irresponsibility of the rich to the poor are highlighted.
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