مترجم: توبه یانی، ابراهیم؛
زمستان 1384 - شماره 24 (10 صفحه - از 219 تا 228)
"Key words: Islam, Turks, Asia Minor, Ottoman, Europe, Safavids, Suleyman the Lawgiver. H. The Hafsid period medicine, which was a mixture of the traditional Gheyruwan School and the Andalusian and Iranian Medicines, became the highway for the transfer of Muslim medical knowledge to Europe; and in fact had been a final stage in the advancement of the history of Islamic medicine. Key words: Ifrighiyah, Tunisia, the Hafsids, medicine, ibn Andreas, Da''''-ul-Ifranj (foreign disease?), cholera, istisgha'''' (rainprayer) THE EVOLUTION OF SEAL AND EMBLEM SYSTEM IN ISLAMIC ADMINSTRATIONS Seyyed Mahdi Javadi Instruments and necessary methods for correspondence and the use of special emblems to confirm and ratify the authenticity of documents issued by rulers has been a major element of administrative procedures in various periods of history. The purpose of this paper is to conduct an etymological study of words and expressions such as tamgha, toghra, and yarligh and explain their historical trend and development in the administrative systems of the Islamic Period."
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