"* * * The Western Countries Guardianship of Religious Minorities Contributed to the Decline of the Ottoman Government By Qais Jawad al - Azzawi trans : Hamid Montazari Moqaddam The contents of the present essay have been drawn from one of the chapters of Qais Jawad al-©Azzawi''''s book, ``The Ottoman Empire; a New Perception of the Factors behind the Decline of the Ottoman household went on piligrimage to Karbela after they had been released by Yazid has long been the subject of speculation . The Umayyad caliphs in general led a kind of luxurious life and were fond in spending great amounts of money on their private affairs and merry- making gatherings , So, the income of the government budget came from different kinds of taxes, such as the tax on land, jiziyah (poll-tax), the booties in additoon to the gifts. * * * The History of Shi''''ism in Nishpur (Nisabur) Mahammad Dashti11 (Part Three) The first and second parts of this research, which appeared in the previous issues of this journal , were concerned with the early history of the spread of Shi''''ah school of thought especially the twelvers in Neyshabur in the period between the beginning and the end of the fourth A. In the previous issues we discussed the proposition that the early development and spread of Shi''''ism coincided with the coming of a number of the prophet''''s Companions to Neyshabur. We also pointed out that the period of the coming of a number of Seyyids and followers of the Household of the prophet to the city witnessed a rapid increase in the spread of the shi''''ah there ."
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