Supporting Families through Early Intervention
نویسنده: McConkey، Roy؛
September 2003 - Number 1 (7 صفحه - از 9 تا 15)
Internationally early intervention programmes for infants and preschoolers with disabilities have proved to be remarkably successful. In many countries, they began with teachers for visually impaired or hearing impaired children visiting the family home to teach parents how they could overcome the child's impairments. The logic of early intervention was inequitable. For example, the sooner children with visual impairments learnt to be independently mobile, then the greater their potential to learn and to kad an ordinary life. In time, this philosophy was extended to children with neurological and developmental delays, such as mental retardation, although success could be variable. In part, many different factors contributed to this variability: the form the interventions took, the extent of family involvement in the intervention and the lack of sensitivity of the measures used to assess a child's progress, to name but three. Perhaps the most extensive and intensive Early intervention schemes have been in the United States with their Head Start programmes. They were aimed at promoting the educational potential of preschoolers from deprived socio - economic backgrounds. Although the first phase of programmes had varying success, those in the second phase yielded impressive results which were mainly attributed to a greater focus on parental participation and links forged with the school system. Recently in developing countries, priority has been given to establishing early intervention as a means of creating new styles of family-based and community-based service in these countries in contrast to the hospital or institutional-services that were a legacy from a previous generation. Although formal evaluations are largely lacking, informal reports have been broadly enthusiastic. In sum, early intervention is no longer a new approach to developmental disabilities. It is an approach of proven effectiveness with children who have different impairments; and who come from different cultures and socio-economic circumstances. Finally compared with specialist-led, clinic-based services they are cost-effective. Hence there can be little hesitation in recommending that government and non-government agencies invest in these services.خلاصه ماشینی:
"Recently in developing countries , priority has been given to establishing early inter vention as a means of creating new styles of family based and community- based serv ice in these countries in contrast to the hos pital or institutional - services that were a legacy from a previous generation (McConkey , 1995 ) . Such aims necessitate new ways of working for specialists involved m designing and delivering early intervention alongside medical procedures . In addition all specialists involved in early intervention need to work in partnerships with families and with community services . Links with Primary Health Care Information leaflets about the early inter vention service should be made available to all health care workers in the localities served by the programme . Special ing courses could devised by the early intervention service to train health work- ers in the for disabilities and giving advice to that will promote the growth and development of all chil- dren (e. roles for disability / Early intervention services have encmn· aged disability specialists such as thera pists,psychologists and social workers,to find new ways of working and to undertake new roles . Some of these have already been mentioned; namely: "' Providing information and training to fam ilies and to community workers ; " Leading parent support groups ; "' Visiting families at home and also the kindergartens and schools which their chil dren attend ; " Observing and involving parents and com munity staff in the assessment of children and the provision of therapy and learning activities ."
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