زمستان 1384 - شماره 15 ISC (28 صفحه - از 143 تا 170)
کلید واژه های ماشینی : Iran، ISIC، The Economies Scale Iran Manufacturing، Return Scale Economies Scale، LAC، Million Rials، Economies Scale، Manufacturing، Cost Scale Economies Among Canadian، The LAC Curve Manufacture Products
One of the topics after two decades of applying import substitution policy in Iran manufacturing sector is the importance of industrial export expansion and foreign relations. The main impetus to this policy transfer is the market expansion and potential gains of exploiting the economies of scale and technical upgrades. Based on this argument this research estimates the efficient scale and gains of producing the optimal scale in large establishments in Iran manufacturing groups at 2-digit ISIC (Rev.2). For this purpose a long run translog cost functional, flexible function form is selected on the theoretical basis. By using indirect seemingly unrelated regressions method, data at the mean of a representative establishment are chosen to estimate the minimum and the slope of LAC. The result shows that the economies of scale exists in all of the industrial groups and in the last year of this research (2001) all of them except the manufacture of non-metallic mineral products (ISIC36) were producing lower than optimal scale. The study of market structure shows that the most concentrated market of manufacturing groups are overlapping with the most potential groups for exploiting the economies of scale. Both of these reasons implies that the domestic market constrain acts as a barrier to gathering the benefits of economies of scale and necessitates the importance of applying outward oriented policies.خلاصه ماشینی:
"the economies of scale is more important in capital-using groups such as manufacture of other products (ISIC39), wood and furniture (ISIC33), paper and publishing (ISIC34), machinery and equipments (ISIC38) and basic metals (ISIC37) respectively, in which they are producing in first neoclassical production area where the long-run cost function is increasing diminishingly. 4 Construction of Variables: Price of labor (PL) = Total emolument/No. of employees Interest rate (r) = interest rate of mining and industry bank of Iran Depreciation rate (d) = depreciation rate estimated by management and planning consultants Price of capital (PK) = Price index of capital (r+d) Price of material inputs = a weighted average of price index built on input-output models, using two input-output tables (1988, 1999 published by central bank of Iran) Total cost: Total emoluments+ total expenditure on materials+ Total expenditure on capital (Price of capital*Capital stock) Output: output + receives for non-manufacturing services Physical Output: debased divisions’ output based year 1982 Share of labor (SL) = Total emoluments/total cost Share of inputs (SM) = Total expenditure on inputs/total cost Share of labor (SK) = Total expenditure on capital (Price of capital*Capital stock) /total cost ISIC – 2Digit (Rev. 2) Aggregate manufacturing (3) food, beverage and tobacco (ISIC31) wearing apparel, textile and leather (ISIC32) wood and furniture (ISIC33) paper and publishing (ISIC34) chemical product (ISIC35) non-metallic mineral products(ISIC36) basic metals (ISIC37) ______________________________ - (Million Rials at 1981 constant prices)."
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