Certainty or Doubt; A Comparative Study مقاله
نویسنده: Mesbah، Ali ؛
Horizons of Thought Spring & Summer 2016 , Volume 2 - Nomber 3 (20 صفحه - از 21 تا 40 )
“Skepticism” supposes uncertainty to be the unavoidable destiny of human being. Some roots of modern skepticism can be found in the teachings of the Old Testament, as well as the falsification of some of the teachings of the Bible by rational arguments and scientific discoveries, and some political evolutions in Europe from 14th to 16th centuries, later called “Renaissance”. They led to a belief in the opposition between religion and science and between reason and revelation. By losing confidence in intellect and sense perception, a new tide of modern skepticism and relativism revived. Still some others maintained that reality differently manifests itself to different people; therefore, they do not believe in any common factor among human beings. The article argues that Islam, as a school of thought and practice, provides us with a special view of the world, and introduces a specific goal for the creation of the world and the human being. According to Islam, the final aim of human creation is to reach one’s voluntary perfection and beatitude, which is based on knowledge. Islam has a great respect for reason and reserves a high position for intellect, while taking its limitations into consideration too.خلاصه ماشینی:
"Key words: Skepticism, Knowledge, Certainty, Islam, Western Philosophy, Christianity, Human perfection Introduction Perhaps, there is not a more tormenting feeling than doubt and uncertainty; a sense that leaves a person with anxiety and suspension, very much like a person who is cut in a horrible whirlpool which puts one in a very fretful situation and robs one of psychological peace. A common point shared by all these schools of thought can be found in their rejection of religion as a source of knowledge: from Thomas Hobbes’ (1588-1679) pure materialism that only considered matter and movement to exist, to Charles Darwin’s (1809-1882) evolution theory who disregarded God in his explanation of natural events; from David Hume’s (1711-1776) empiricism who said good-by to reason and revelation altogether, and considered experiment to be the only reliable method of understanding, to the critical philosophy of Kant who separated the sphere of science form the domain of religion, and considered religion inaccessible to science and pure reason; from radical scientism of Saint-Simond (1760-1825) and Augusta Comte (1798-1857) in founding the school of French positivism that reduced all knowledge to physics, to logical positivism which labeled philosophical and religious propositions as meaningless and unintelligible. This leads to a universal relativism in all human knowledge and sciences, which means the impossibility of understanding reality, perplexity in finding the right way of conducting life, ethical and legal chaos, and the vanity of life."کلیدواژه ها:
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