Skip to main content
فهرست مقالات

بررسی کارکردهای خوش‌نویسی سه‌بعدی با رویکرد مبلمان شهری (مطالعه موردی: آثار حجمی نوشتاری شهرستان‌های تهران و مشهد، از سال 1390 تا 1394هجری شمسی)

نویسنده:

نویسنده مسئول:

علمی-ترویجی (وزارت علوم)/ISC (12 صفحه - از 21 تا 32)

چکیده:

ترکیب و چینش حروف، با هدف اثربخشی به محتوای متن، از ارکان خوش‌نویسی شهری ‌است. با تبدیل تایپوگرافی دوبُعدی به سه‌بُعدی، شدت اثربخشی نوشتار بیش‌تر می‌شود و چنان‌چه این آثار در فضاهای عمومی نصب شوند، باید علاوه ‌بر رعایت خصوصیات ذاتی تایپوگرافی، معیارهای مبلمان شهری نیز در نظر گرفته شود. هدفِ پژوهش بررسی ویژگی‌های بصری و تجسمی آثار نوشتاری سه‌بعدیِ اجراشده در شهرستان‌های تهران و مشهد، در فاصله سال‌های 1390 تا 1394هجری شمسی است ؛ و در پی پاسخ به این پرسش است: ویژگی بصری و تجسمی آثار مذکور چیست و چطور دسته بندی می‌شوند؟ رویکرد پژوهش، کمی و کاربردی و روش پژوهش، تحلیلی و تطبیقی است. جمع‌آوری اطلاعات، کتاب‌خانه‌ای و میدانی بوده و جامعه آماری، آثار تایپوگرافی سه بعدی اجراشده در تهران و مشهد است. نمونه‌گیری برای دست‌یابی به بیش‌ترین داده‌های آماری، هدفمند است. به این معنا که موارد با حداکثر اختلاف انتخاب شده‌اند. مبنای انتخاب، آمار آثار خوش‌نویسی شهری در شهرهای تهران و مشهد است که توسط سازمان زیباسازی شهرداری‌ها اجراشده و در سطح شهر نصب گردیده است. تامل در این آثار، نشان می‌دهد که به‌خصوص در مشهد، گرایش سفارش‌دهندگان و هنرمندان، بیش‌تر به استفاده از مضامین مذهبی است. نتیجه آن سبب پدیدآمدن آثار تکراری است که کم‌تر می‌توان در آن خلاقیتی یافت. یا با محیط خود تناسب ندارند و یا خوانش سریع و ساده آن‌ها برای مخاطبِ عام میسر نیست. این نشان می‌دهد که توجه به ویژگی‌های بنیادین تایپوگرافی، رعایت معیارهای گرافیک محیطی و مبلمان شهری، دقت در شیوه جانمایی و مکان‌یابی آثار، خلاقیت در ایده‌پردازی و استفاده از فونت مناسب، می‌تواند به تناسب حداکثری اثر با محیط کمک کند.

Combining and sorting alphabets, aiming at the effectiveness of text content, is the pillar key of typography. By converting a two-dimensional typography to three-dimensional, the effectiveness of the text becomes greater .If these works are installed in public spaces, urban furniture criteria should be considered in addition to observing the inherent characteristics of typography. The purpose of the study was to investigate the visual features of three-dimensional typography works performed in the cities of Tehran and Mashhad from 2011 to 2015. The question is: What are the visual characteristics of the works and how are they categorized? Research method is analytical and comparative. Data collection is based on library and field resources. The statistical society is the three-dimensional typography works performed in Tehran and Mashhad; the sampling method is purposeful. Today, calligraphy has been entered in new fields such as packaging, advertising and architecture with the advancement of industry and the digital revolution. In this case, typography is considered as urban furniture. Therefore, due to the multifaceted nature of all the senses of the audience, it is involved with the work of art. In the study of typographic works as urban decorations, several topics are discussed: reading the work, distance from the work, the surrounding space, color and formal proportions of the work, installation environment, technical and material harmony with the content of the calligraphy. The outcome of the typographic works installed in Tehran and Mashhad cities is important because it is the result of a new business of environmental graphics and urban furniture. Ease of reading is the most important factor and form, its composition and relevance to the content are sub factors. These works can be distinguished in two categories: urban volume and volume writing. The works of the first group are the result of deepening the two-dimensional surface. The second group is divided into frontal and multifaceted visual effects. The works of the second group have a better capability for living spaces in urban spaces, which can be considered as urban furniture. The works of Mashhad have been mainly performed with the religious theme of the Quran and the name of the Shiite Imams, but in Tehran, in addition to them, praise and greeting to God, Prophet Mohammad, Salavat, verses of the holy Quran and the names of God have also been worked a lot. The calligraphy used in multi-faceted works is Kufic and in single-angle works it is Nastaliq, Thuluth and decorative Kufic. In Tehran, new traditional calligraphies such as Moalaa and abstract calligraphies have also been used. The type of presentation, composition method, arrangement of letters or words together in Tehran has a significant scope compared to Mashhad. Some works use national visual symbols such as cypress. Most of the materials used in the works are mainly metal. The most important issue in typography is the readability that is relatively observed in the works, although the fragmentation of the composition can be seen in it. Coordination and harmony with the work environment is another factor that is related to the base, point of view and visibility. High contrast colors bring out bold color to the artist. This issue is more evident in Tehran's artworks. Positive and negative space, composite calligraphies and visual active points such as Bismillah have suggested a successful element. Curved shapes, monochrome colors and their harmony with the green background of trees are the strengths of the some works. Some other works are expanded in the form of abstract alphabets with curved forms in depth, although interest in abstract forms has diminished the readability of the work. Some conceptual works have been performed too. For instance, a part of the inscription has been written and the other part has been completed by the audience. A study of the works of Tehran and Mashhad shows they do not follow the form of function most of the times. In other words, the message here is that it doesn't fit the form. So only a few of these works are volumetric combinations of alphabets. Some of the works have become inappropriate, or the distance between the field of view and the reading of the work has turned it into an unbalanced work. It should also be noted that visual disturbances cause the observer's vision to be impaired. However, the similarity of the three-dimensional techniques, as well as the type of material, indicates a common pattern for the construction of volumetric typography. It is believed that this process will lead to non-creative reproduction of the works.

کلیدواژه ها:

تهران ،مشهد ،مبلمان شهری ،خوش‌نویسی ،تایپوگرافی ،سه‌بعدی

Urban Furniture ،typography ،Mashhad ،3D ،Tehran ،Calligraphy


برای مشاهده محتوای مقاله لازم است ورود پایگاه شوید. در صورتی که عضو نیستید از قسمت عضویت اقدام فرمایید.