مطالعه تطبیقی کتیبه قالی وقفی و منابع مکتوب درباری، با محوریت شناخت شخصیت تقیخان درانی، حاکم کرمان در عصر زندیه(1209-1163هجری)
نویسنده: کاکاوند، سمانه؛
بهار 1399 - شماره 53 علمی-ترویجی (وزارت علوم)/ISC (10 صفحه - از 43 تا 52)
پژوهش حاضر باهدف مطالعه فرش بهعنوان یک سند تاریخی در ارتباط باشخصیت تقیخان درانی انجامیافته است. منابع بسیاری به بررسی تاریخ کرمان عصر زندیه پرداخته و به سبب اهمیت حکومت تقیخان، به وی نیز توجه شده است. رویکردهای گوناگونی نسبت به شخصیت او در میان این منابع وجود دارد. برخی به سجایا و بعضی دیگر به رذایل اخلاقی او پرداختهاند. این مقاله با دو هدف معرفی کارکرد اسنادی قالی و تحلیل متن-بافتههای مندرج بر قالی وقفی عصر زندیه، در راستای شناخت شخصیت تقیخان درانی از یکسو و تطبیق یافتهها با منابع مکتوب و درک واگرایی رویکردها به حاکم کرمان به رشته تحریر درآمده است. لذا، مساله پژوهش، معرفی اهمیت قالی بهعنوان سند تاریخی با مصداق شخصیت تقیخان درانی است. درک علت ناهمگونی آرا در شناخت شخص نامبرده در قالی وقفی و سایر منابع مدنظر است. ضرورت پرداختن به چنین موضوعی، اهمیت تاریخی داشته و موجب توسعه منابع مکتوب عصر زندیه(1209-1163ه.ق.) میشود که فقدان پژوهش، همواره، بدان زیان رسانیده است. گردآوری اطلاعات به روش کتابخانهای انجامشده و با رویکرد توصیفی، تطبیقی و تحلیلی بدان پرداختهشده است؛ در ضمن، پژوهش از نوع مطالعات اسنادی است. به نظر میرسد قالی، علاوه بر کاربرد و اغنای حس زیباییشناسی، میتواند کارکرد اسنادی هم داشته باشد. فرضیه دیگر اینکه، شخصیت تقیخان درانی بازتابی متفاوت در میان متون درباری، تاریخ کرمان و کتیبه قالی وقفی عصر زندیه دارد. سروده موجود در کتیبه قالی، دال بر کارکرد تبلیغاتی دستبافته است.
The aim of this study was to study carpets as a historical document related to the personality of Taghi khan Durrani. Many sources have studied the history of Kerman during the Zandieh Era and due to the importance of the Taghi Khan government; attention has also been paid to it. There are various approaches to his character among these sources. Some have paid to his good behavior and others to his moral vices. In order to conduct this research, the author faced significant contradictions in introducing the character of Taghi Khan Durrani, the ruler of Kerman in the Zandieh Era. Taghi Khan Durrani in the court sources of Zandieh Era is well known, in the history books of Kerman in a different way and the endowment carpet has a clear and different message. Therefore, the issue of research is to introduce the importance of carpets as a historical document with the example of Taghi Khan Durrani's character. Understanding the reason for the heterogeneity of opinions in recognizing the mentioned person in the endowment carpet and other sources is considered. The need to address such an issue is of historical importance and leads to the development of written sources of the Zandieh Era (1163-1209 AH), which have always been neglected. Therefore, the comparative study of resources with the approach of recognizing him as much as possible is the main goal of the research. In addition, this article aims to introduce the documentary function of carpet and text analysis. Woven endowed carpet of Zandieh Era is important to recognize the character of Taghi Khan Durrani and reminding the importance that in addition to paper documents, there is a woven document in the form of carpet and introduction of a new function. It has been written under the title of "Documentary" on one hand and adapting the written sources and understanding the divergence of approaches to the ruler of Kerman on the other hand. The carpet in question is one of the woven fragments of Kerman in the Zandieh Era, which is currently kept in the registration number 20294 in the National Museum of Iran. Data collection is done by the library method and is done with a descriptive, comparative and analytical approach. In addition, research is a type of documentary study. It seems that in addition to using and enriching the sense of aesthetics, carpets can also have a documentary function. Another hypothesis is that the character of Taghi khan Durrani has a different reflection among the court texts, the history of Kerman and the inscription of the endowed carpet of Zandieh Era. The poem in the carpet inscription indicates the propaganda function. The present study seeks to answer the following questions with a comparative, historical and analytical approach: Does the carpet in question have significant documentary information in recognizing the character of Taghi Khan Durrani? Does the weaver have a kind of propaganda function and play a documentary role in introducing the good behavior of donator? What are the reasons for the difference in the approach of court sources and the text of the carpet inscription in recognizing Taghi Khan? The required data were obtained using files and notes based on library studies and the description and analysis of the information was based on the author's assumptions. Recordings and writing obtained from the observations of the mentioned carpet form a major part of the text and are the basis of the conclusion. In general, there is a contradiction in the views and personalities of Taghi Khan Durrani in the court sources of Zandieh's history and the endowment carpet. Most of the books that did not have a free prose and were commissioned by the court have introduced Taghi Khan as a rebellious person. The court clerks in each period did not adhere to a clear historiographical model, but rather focused on praising the king and gaining his approval. While the endowed carpet has a different look as a remained woven document. However, the endowed carpet is woven by the order of Taghi Khan and, like the historical texts of the court, is not empty of the praises of the ordering person. According to the poetic content of the endowment carpet inscription, Taghi Khan is an honorable, noble, brave and donator human being. Since various dimensions cause a deep insight, considering the approach of carpet inscription as a reflection of courtly features as the mirror of the vices of Taghi Khan Durrani, this makes the researcher deny the determinism of history. On the other hand, it seems that handmade fragment has had a promotional function as a mean of acceptance and popularity among people. In this research, an attempt was made to introduce a different function from the underlayment, wall hangings and other famous uses and arrangement of carpets. Inscribed carpets can be read by having textual information and reserves in the place of the first document. Regardless of the value, judgment, and knowledge of the good and bad traits of historical figures, knowing them and knowing their thoughts, actions, mistakes, and services has been very useful. There is no significant connection between this document and the history books of the Zandieh Era.
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