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اثربخشی خاطره پردازی ساختارمند گروهی بر ارتقای خودپنداره مثبت سالمندان مقاله

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سالمندی دوران حساسی از زندگی بشر است که طی آن سالمندان در معرض تهدیدات بالقوه‌ای نظیر افزایش ابتلا به بیماری‌های مزمن، انزوای اجتماعی و عدم برخورداری از حمایت اجتماعی بوده و به دلیل ناتوانی‌های جسمی و ذهنی، در موارد زیادی استقلال فردی‌شان مورد تهدید قرار می‌گیرد. لذا این تحقیق با هدف تعیین رابطه‌ی امید به زندگی و بهزیستی روان‌شناختی با کیفیت زندگی در سالمندان شهر اراک انجام شد. روش پژوهش، توصیفی از نوع همبستگی بود. جامعه آماری شامل کلیه‌ی سالمندان ساکن شهر اراک بود و حجم نمونه شامل 130 نفر از آنها می‌شد که به روش نمونه‌گیری در دسترس انتخاب شدند. داده‌های پژوهش به وسیله‌ی سه پرسشنامه‌ی کیفیت زندگی (SF-36؛ وار و شربورن، 1992)، بهزیستی روان‌شناختی ریف (1988) و امید به زندگی میلر (میلر و پاورز، 1988) جمع‌آوری شد و برای تجزیه و تحلیل داده‌ها از روش‌های آماری ضریب همبستگی و تحلیل رگرسیون چندگانه استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد که بین بهزیستی روان‌شناختی و امید به زندگی با کیفیت زندگی سالمندان رابطه‌ی مثبت معناداری وجود دارد. علاوه بر این، بین همه‌ی مولفه‌های بهزیستی روان‌شناختی (بجز خودمختاری) با کیفیت زندگی سالمندان رابطه‌ی معناداری به دست آمد (01/0 > P). در نهایت، نتایج تحلیل رگرسیون گام به گام نشان داد که براساس بهزیستی روان‌شناختی و امید به زندگی می‌توان 33 درصد از کیفیت زندگی سالمندان را پیش‌بینی نمود. بنابراین، با بهبود شاخصه‌های امید به زندگی و سلامت جسمی و روانی و فراهم آوردن زمینه‌های استقلال، ارتباطات سالم و مخصوصا ارتباطات خانوادگی قوی و بهبود بهزیستی روان‌شناختی سالمندان، می‌توان کیفیت زندگی آنان را ارتقا بخشید.

Aging is one of the stages of human life in which the lower levels of positive self-concept is common due to the erosion of some of the capabilities of the individuals. Therefore, this study was performed to examine the efficacy of structured group reminiscence on the enhancement of positive self-concept of the elderly in Hamadan. This study was quasi-experimental of pretest, post-test with control group type and its statistical method was variance analysis with repeated measure analysis. The study statistical population consists of all the elderly half-residents of nursing homes in Hamadan city. The sample was chosen from 112 elderly who were members of the nursing home of Habib Ibn Mazaher, Hamadan. Twenty elderly with age ranges of 60-82 (M=73.46, SD=5.76) qualified to participate in this study were selected and placed randomly in two control and experimental group. The elderly who were in treatment group, participated in reminiscence meetings for 24 sessions. There were used demographic questionnaire and Tennessee Self-Concept Scale: Second Edition (Fitts & Warren, 1996). In this study to record the trend of change in scores, the researchers asked the participations to fill the questionnaire in pretest, the sixth session, the twelfth session, the eighteenth session, the twenty- fourth session and one month after the intervention termination. The results showed that structured group reminiscence have significant effect on self-concept score of the elderly and these achievements were kept in a one-month follow up. Therefore, the clinical psychologists are encouraged to use structured group reminiscence to improve the positive self-concept in the elderly. References Andersen, A. E. (1982). Reminiscence and self-concept in older adults (Master's thesis). Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/2429/23255 Butler, R. N. (1963). The life-review: An interpretation of reminiscence in the aged. Psychiatry, 26, 63-76. Chao, S. Y. (2006). The effects of group reminiscence therapy on depression, self esteem and life satisfaction of elderly nursing home residents. Journal of Nursing Research, 14, 36–45. Chiang, K. J., Chu, H., Chang, H. J., Chung, M. H., Chen, C. H., Chiou, H. Y., & Chou, K. R. (2010). The effects of reminiscence therapy on psychological well-being, depression, and loneliness among the institutionalized aged. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry, 25, 380–388. Choy, J. C. P., & Lou, V. W. Q. (2015). The effectiveness of modified Instrumental Reminiscence Intervention on psychological well-being among community-dwelling Chinese older adults: a randomized controlled trial. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 23(10),24-38. doi:10.1016/j.jagp.2015.05.008 Fitts, W. H., & Warren, W. L. (1996). The Tennessee Self-Concept Scale: Second Edition (TSCS:2) (2 ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services. Fujiwara, E., Otsuka, K., Sakai, A., Hoshi, K., Sekiai, S., Kamisaki, M., Ishikawa, Y., Iwato, S., & Chida, F. (2012). Usefulness of reminiscence therapy for community mental health. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci, 66(1), 74-9. Hallford, D., & Mellor, D. (2013). Reminiscence-Based Therapies for Depression: Should They Be Used Only With Older Adults? Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 20(4), 452-468. Harter, S. (1990). Issues in the assessment of the self-concept of children and adolescents. In A. M. La Greca (Ed.), Through the eyes of the child: Obtaining self-reports from children and adolescents (pp. 292-325). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon. Lewis, C. N. (1971). Reminiscencing and self-concept in old age. Journal of Gerontology, 26(2), 240-243. Liu, S. J., Lin, C. J., Chen, Y. M., & Huang, X. Y. (2007). The Effects of Reminiscence Group Therapy on Self-esteem, Depression, Loneliness and Life Satisfaction of Elderly People Living Alone. Mid Taiwan Journal of Medicine , 12(3), 133-142. Mackinlay, E., & Trevitt, C . (2010). Living in aged Care: Using Spiritual reminiscence to enhance meaning in life for those with dementia. international journal of mental health nursing, 19(6), 394- 401. Majzoobi, M. R, Momeni, K., Amani, R., Hojjat Khah, M. (2012). The effectiveness of structured group reminiscence on the enhancement of the elderlys’ life quality and happiness. Developmental Psychology (Journal of Iranian Psychologists), 9(34), 182-202. [Persian] McKee, K., Wilson, F., Elford, H., Goudie, F., Chung, M.C., Bolton, G. & Hinchliff, S. (2002). Evaluating the Impact of Reminiscence on the Quality of Life of Older People. Gerontology, 47(Suppl. 1). Meléndez, J. C., Fortuna, F. B., Sales, A., & Mayordomo, T. (2015). The effects of instrumental reminiscence on resilience and coping in elderly. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics , 60(2), 294-298. Momeni, K., Amani, R., Majzoobi, M. R, & Mohebi, Z. (2014). The Effectiveness of structured group reminiscence on depression and self-esteem of older women. International Jornal of Behavioral Sciences, 8(3), 287-294. [Persian] Ribot, T. (1982). The Diseases of Memory. New York: Appleton. Shellman, J. M., Mokel, M., & Hewitt, N. (2009). The Effects of Integrative Reminiscence on Depressive Symptoms in Older African Americans. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 31(6), 772-786. Stinson, C. (2009). Structured group reminiscence: An intervention to decrease depression in older adults. Journal of Continuing Nurse Education, 40(11), 521-528. Stinson, C. K,. Young, E. A., & K I R K, E. (2010). Use of a structured reminiscence protocol to decrease depression in older women. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 17, 665–673. Stinson, C. K., & Kirk, E. (2005). Structured reminiscence: an intervention to decrease depression and increase self-transcendence in older women. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 15, 208-218. Stinson, C., & Kirk, E. (2006). Structured reminiscence: An intervention to decrease depression and increase self-transcendence in older women. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 15, 208-218. Su, T. W., Wu, L. L., & Lin, C. P. (2012). The prevalence of dementia and depression in Taiwanese institutionalized leprosy patients, and the effectiveness evaluation of reminiscence therapy—a longitudinal, single-blind, randomized control study. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 27(2), 187–196. Syed Elias, S. M., Neville, C., & Scott, T. (2015). The effectiveness of group reminiscence therapy for loneliness, anxiety and depression in older adults in long-term care: A systematic review. Geriatric Nursing, 36(5), 1-9. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2003). Using Multivariate Statistics. New York: Allyn and Bacon. Thornton, S., & Brotchie, J. (1987). Reminiscence: a critical review of the empirical literature. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 26, 93–111. Wu, L. F., Chuo, H. J., & Wu, S. T. (2012). The effect of group instrumental reminiscence therapy in older single veterans who live in a veterans home in Taiwan. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 27(1), 107–108. Zhou, W., He, G., Gao, J., Yuan, Q., Feng, C., Zhang, C. K. (2012). The effects of group reminiscence therapy on depression, self-esteem, and affect balance of Chinese community-dwelling elderly. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 54(3), 440-447.

کلیدواژه ها:

خودپنداره ، سالمندان ، خاطره پردازی ساختارمند گروهی

self-concept ، Elderly ، structured group reminiscence


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