نویسنده مسئول: رجبی، ازیتا؛
سیاست گذاری محیط شهری زمستان 1400 - شماره 4 (15 صفحه - از 92 تا 106 )
در دهههای اخیر شاهد رجعت نظریه پردازان حوزههای برنامه ریزی شهری وشهرسازی به طبیعت و احیاء هر چه بیشتر آن هستیم که این امر متاثر از آلودگیهای روز افزون جهانی و دغدغههایی زیست محیطی میباشد که سیاره ما را به طور جدی تهدید نموده و باعث شکلگیری مباحث توسعه پایدار شهری، با موضوعاتی مانند؛ جلوگیری ازآلودگیها محلی، کاهش مصرف منابع تجدید ناپذیر در نظام مصرف سکونتگاههای انسانی، توجه به بازیافت و بازتولید منابع مصرفی، حمایت از فعالیتهای زیست محیطی و.. شده است دراین راستارویکرد پرماکالچر با تاکید برفرهنگ کشاورزی پایدار شهری به عنوان یکی از جدیدترین رویکردها در کشورهای دنیا مورد توجه محافل علمی و مدیریت شهری قرار گرفته است. نهضت پرماکالچر بخشی از دیدگاه بیوفلیک یا نهضت «شهردوستدارطبیعت» میباشد با این تفاوت که در این رویکرد تاکید بر کشت گونههای مثمر غذایی، بازیافت زباله، کاهش و صرفه جویی در مصرف منابع آب و خاک و منابع انرژی، کاهش ضایعات شهری و به حداکثر رساندن سودمندی در اثر "هم افزایی بین ساکنان شهری مطرح شده وبا توجه به سهولت وارزان بودن راهبردهای اجرایی تحقق آن یکی از مهمترین و اجراییترین رویکردهای برون رفت جوامع از مشکلات زیست محیطی و پیوند مطلوب شهربا طبیعت درجهان تلقی میشود. دراین مقاله با جستجوی پایگاههای اطلاعاتی معتبر علمی به تحلیل مفهومی رویکرد پرماکالچر شهری پرداخته شده و بر اساس روش مروری- روایتی تلاش میشود تاراهکارهای مناسب سیاستگذاری تحقق مطلوب این رویکرد قابل تحقق گردد.
In recent decades, we have witnessed the rise of theorists in the areas of urban planning and urbanization to its nature and further revival, which is affected by the increasing global pollution and environmental concerns that have seriously threatened our planet in recent decades and led to sustainable urban development topics, with issues such as preventing local pollution, reducing the consumption of irreversible resources in the settlement consumption system. Human beings, especially cities, pay attention to recycling and reproduction of consumable resources, supporting environmental activities, etc. In this regard, permaculture approach with emphasis on sustainable urban agriculture culture as one of the newest approaches in the world has been considered by scientific circles and urban management. Permaculture movement is part of the biophilic or "nature-friendly city" movement, except that in this approach, emphasizing the cultivation of fruitful food species, waste recycling, reduction and saving of water and soil resources and energy resources, reducing urban waste and maximizing the usefulness due to "synergy among urban residents has been proposed and due to the ease of implementation strategies, it is one of the most important and executive strategies. The most available approaches of communities from environmental problems and the optimal link between the city and nature of the world are taken into account. In this paper, by researching reliable scientific databases, the conceptual analysis of the urban permaculture approach is and by identifying the characteristics and methods of implementing urban aperture based on the review-narrative method, it is attempted to achieve appropriate policy-making solutions based on its correct understanding. Extended AbstractIntroduction: In recent decades, we have witnessed the return of urban planning and urbanization theorists to its nature and further revival, a factor influenced by the increasing global pollution and environmental concerns which have extremely threatened our planet in recent years and led to the broaching of sustainable urban development topics, with issues such as: preventing local pollution and reducing the consumption of irreversible resources in the system of habitation. Human beings pay attention to recycling and reproduction of consumable resources, supporting environmental activities, etc. In this regard, permaculture approach emphasizing sustainable urban agricultural culture as one of the newest approaches in the world has been considered by scientific circles and urban management. One of the foremost capabilities of permaculture is its realization in various types of open and closed spaces, public and private, semi-public and semi-private urban and rural according to the concept of sustainable development, which means combining economic, social and environmental goals to maximize the welfare of the present human being without harming the ability of the next generations to meet their needs (QECD, 2001:11). The concept of permaculture design is the realization of ecological engineering programs "with emphasis on providing healthy food needs of citizens in their living environment and "culture based on environment or canvas" is available in the local settlement. The basis for this eco-ideological approach or "ideology-ecology" provided the basis for this view, which is entirely derived from the geographical perspective of agricultural production without the occurrence of environmental damages and by preserving moral values in both urban and rural spaces. Also, this approach can lead to the promotion of cultural and social exchanges of citizens at the urban level. It can be said that permaculture is in fact a combination of sustainable agriculture and a culture of living in an environmentally friendly way that can be viewed in all aspects of human habitation, from agriculture to ecological construction in cities to appropriate technology that combines an agricultural system and principles of social design. The concept of permaculture is considered one of the major approaches to the realization of sustainable development in urban and rural areas and an exit approach for third world societies from the environmental crises of their polluted cities, the permaculture movement is part of the biofilk or "nature-friendly city" movement, except that in this approach, the emphasis is on cultivating fruitful food species, recycling waste, reducing and saving the consumption of water and soil resources.Methodology: Given the fact that this article is a review article using valid scientific databases, a summary of preliminary and original studies in the field of urban permaculture based on newer articles and global resources has been discussed in this regard; by using new findings in the field of urban planning science based on nature-friendly city view, we present the realization of this issue to review valid articles. International books and opinions of global experts in this field and the summation and classification of the mentioned data in the form of strategy executive approaches are discussed in accordance with the conditions of the environment.Results and discussion: Permaculture is defined as an "excellent" form of organic gardening and as a design system for flexible living and land use based on global ethics and environmental design principles in cities and villages, based on the type of plant species planting within towns and villages, the edge spaces, their proximity and outside are divided into the following six areas: Zero zone within important urban centers, zone one of the closest areas of residential areas and garden zone of salad plants, medicinal plants, soft and delicate fruits (strawberries, strawberries), greenhouse plants, amplified area and vermicompost reservoirs. Permaculture 2nd zone edge range is dedicated to cultivation of perennial plants, fruit bushes and trees, vegetables, large reservoirs of compost, pumpkin and sweet potatoes with less care level. The third zone is dedicated to the cultivation of crops and fruit orchards for domestic and commercial purposes while the fourth zone is considered a quasi-savvy area, which outside the settlements and forage cultivation areas, groves, forests and wetlands, etc. Zone 5 includes wildlife, which is a genetic reservoir of wild species. The first three zones are completely related to human settlement lands and there are solutions for self-reliance of food, creating fun and fruitful green spaces and educating nature-friendly citizens, so the permaculture approach from reaching the stages of compost production at home and preventing waste destruction and utilization of non-drinking water and rainwater gray water to creating gardens in private and semi-public spaces and even public and social farms and farm schools and farm universities to "farm property" or farms in commercial centers can take effective steps towards social self-confidence, optimal consumption, environmental protection, nutrition improvement, cultural promotion of society with the lowest cost and highest productivity and in line with nature and based on health and prosperity brings.Conclusion: The most important results of the realization of urban permaculture strategy can be considered on the basis of the studies conducted by researchers in this field as follows:- Permaculture economic strategy is based on "productive city"; self-employment and economic self-sufficiency of urban neighborhoods, the ability to produce enough food for all people in their areas of life, without the need for external resources reduce the costs of providing food for families, especially low-income classes, and save the cost of providing healthy and fresh fruits and vegetables.- The environmental strategy of this approach is based on the multiple plants and even animal species and is based on biodiversity, biological control of pests, production of compost, conservation of nature, improvement of air and water pollutants, etc. And the ultimate realization becomes a "healthy city".- The social strategy of the city in this approach leads to the promotion of social exchanges in common areas and the exchange of experiences, unity and empathy, appropriate social education of different generations, social mobilization in the direction of healthy life and an intelligent and inclusive society, and by creating sustainable settlements in order to revitalize urban spaces, an effective and feasible step is possible.
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