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فهرست مقالات

Privatization of Football Clubs in Iran: Challenges and Barriers

نویسنده:

(4 صفحه - از 165 تا 168)

خلاصه ماشینی:

"Managerial obstacles were lack of serious determination for football clubs privatization, plurality of decision making center and lack of sufficient coordination among them and resistance of some governmental manager CONCLUSIONS Research result has shown that structural challenges are the most important one, this finding is similar to Guidio and Philippe (2003) finding about Spanish football clubs , they found that Spanish football clubs structure isn’t suitable and their development encounter with big challenge(3). Result has shown that legal barriers was the second important obstacle for privatization football clubs ,this result is similar to Guidio and Philippe (2003) finding , their result showed that lack of special law about TV or broadcasting right, sponsors, economic and financial management were the most important reasons for inefficiency in Spanish football clubs ."

صفحه: از 165 تا 168
165 Annals of Applied Sport Science , Spring 2015, Volume 3 - Number 9

166 Annals of Applied Sport Science , Spring 2015, Volume 3 - Number 9

METHOD

As there is currently no established theory regarding the football clubs‌ privatization‌ in‌ Iran, this research was done on basis of exploratory –descriptive‌ method. Research population and sample contain football clubs managers.

Data gathering performed with questionnaire. Validity of data gathering‌ instrument‌ confirm‌ by sport management, economic, management and jurist experts. Reliability (0/96) measured‌ in‌ pilot study. Exploratory rather than confirmatory factor analysis was applied to summarize data.

RESULTS

According to‌ research‌ result‌ we have found that structural challenges are the most important one, after‌ that‌ behavioral‌, Semantic and environmental respectively. The most important barrier of privatization football clubs is economical‌ or‌ financial‌, after that legal next structural and managerial at last. Lack of comprehensive privatization program‌, lack‌ of suitable circumstance for privatization and lack of special and expert group for‌ privatization‌ football‌ clubs recognized as Structural challenge. Behavioral challenges refers to performance of managers, such as‌ transfer‌ of football clubs to provinces , entrance of political managers and inattention to fiscal‌ affairs‌ ,equipment‌ and facilities of clubs. Semantic challenges refers to misunderstanding of privatization concept, aims, vision and‌ visibility‌ of responsibility in football clubs privatization. Environmental challenges consist of huge capitalization‌ of‌ government‌ in football club, direct financial helps by government and lack of controlling system. Economical hindrances‌ consist‌ of‌ all barriers that led to negative financial balance in football clubs such‌ as‌ low income from sponsors, ticket, player transferring, and endorsement and so on.

Legal obstacles refer to‌ lack‌ of comprehensive privatization rules, weakness of tax rules, TV or broadcasting, publicity‌ surrounding‌ football match field and copy right rules‌. Structural‌ hindrances‌ refer to unsuitable structure of football clubs‌ or‌ football industry such as noncommercial structure, low brand, lack of private stadium, invisibility‌ of‌ financial statue of clubs, lack‌ of‌ foreign direct‌ investment‌ (FDI‌) and high risky position of football‌ industry‌ for capitalization. Managerial obstacles were lack of serious determination for football clubs‌ privatization‌, plurality of decision making center and‌ lack of sufficient coordination‌ among‌ them and resistance of some‌ governmental‌ manager

CONCLUSIONS

Research result has shown that structural challenges are the most important‌ one‌, this finding is similar to‌ Guidio‌ and‌ Philippe (2003) finding‌ about‌ Spanish football clubs , they‌ found‌ that Spanish football clubs structure isn’t suitable and their development encounter with big challenge‌(3). Entrancing‌ political and governmental manager in football‌ clubs‌ was one‌ of‌ important‌ behavioral challenges, that is‌ similar to Morrow (2004) finding, he conclude that clubs

167 Annals of Applied Sport Science , Spring 2015, Volume 3 - Number 9

168 Annals of Applied Sport Science , Spring 2015, Volume 3 - Number 9