Spring 2015, Volume 3 - Number 9 (4 صفحه - از 241 تا 244)
"2. Assistant Professor, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamadan, Iran INTRODUCTION There is no doubt that physical practice leads to learning a motor task. Various studies, on the other hand, have shown that another effective way for motor learning is observing a model performing the same task, known as "observational learning" (1-5). For example, Rohbanfard and Proteau (2011) indicated that observing a novice model, an expert model, or a combination of both novice and expert models leads to better learning of a relative timing task (2). The aim of the present study, therefore, was to determine whether observation of a model by itself results in same learning as compared with physical practice. com strategy, then, it is hypothesized that observation or physical practice leads to same results while learning short backhand serve in Badminton."
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doing the same thing frequently, as these temporal effects were removed during the 48-hr retention/transfer tests. By the way, the performance of observation groups showed consistency and, thus, reflected "learning" of the motor task. To summarize, in some conditions physical practice can be replaced properly by observation. These results help coaches and athletes to organize the most effective practical settings.
1- Buchanan JJ. Dean NJ. Specificity in practice benefits learning in novice models and variability in demonstration
2- Rohbanfard H. Proteau L. Learning through observation: a combination of expert and novice models favors learning. Experimental brain research. 2011 .215(3-4): 183-197
3- Andrieux M. Proteau L. Observation learning of a motor task: who and when? Experimental brain research.
2013 .229(1): 125-137
4- Andrieux M. Proteau L. Mixed observation favors motor learning through better estimation of the model’s performance. Experimental brain research. 2014 .1-12
5- Ajam M. The effects of observation of a combination of expert and novice models on learning a sport skill.
2014. Bu-Ali Sina University of Hamedan [Thesis in Farsi].
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