poverty in pakistan
نویسنده: mehmood mirza، faisal؛
زمستان 1383 - شماره 12 ISC (24 صفحه - از 103 تا 126)
The paper in the study of poverty in Pakistan is aimed at the analysis of macroeconomic determinants of poverty. It reviews the empirical literature on poverty in Pakistan over the last thirty years. The literature varies from published research papers to the different reports produced by the national and the international institutions. It also estimates the impact of different causes of poverty like growth rate, inflation, development expenditures, defense expenditures, foreign remittances, foreign investment, foreign aid etc. through the data made available by economic survey of Pakistan, fifty years of Pakistan statistics and the world development indicators. The paper also gives the policy recommendations on the social safety nets like micro finance and Zakat and education, health and housing facilities through which poverty can be eradicated from the country.
"Pressure of population growth on goods and services and social deprivation, which includes access to physical and social assets such as certain quantity of food, land, health care, low level of investment in human resource development has also intensified the poverty situation. The functional equation containing different causative determinants will be: Pov = f (GDP, Pop, Fiscal def, Debt Serv, Dev exp, Inf, Remit, Fore Inv, Dir Tax, Ind Tax, Def exp, G style, Subs, income Ineq, Fore aid, Unemp) Where, GDP= GDP growth rate Pop= population pressure Fisc def= fiscal deficit Debt Ser= debt servicing Dev exp= development expenditures Inf= inflation Remit= foreign remittances For Inv= foreign investment Dir tax= Direct taxes Ind tax= indirect taxes Def exp= defense expenditures G style= style of government (democracy or military government) Subs= subsidies Income Ineq= income inequalities Fore aid= foreign aid Unemp= unemployment In the equation form, we can write these variables as Pov=a0+a1 GDP+ a2 pop+ a3 Fisc def+ a4 debt ser+a5 dev exp+a6 inf+a7 fore remit+a8 for inv+ a9 dir tax+a10 Ind tax + a11 def exp+ a12 g style+a13 subs+a14 income ineq+ a15 fore aid+ a16 unemp + έ Where, έ= random term a1 <0, a2 >0, a3 <0, a4 >0, a5 <0, a6 >0, a7 <0, a8 <0, a9 >0, a10 >0, a11 >0, a13 <0, a14 >0, a15 <0, a16 >0 These a’s Show the theoretical signs of these variables in the regression model."
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