Linguistics and Ethnography of Communication
نویسنده: Torabi، Mohammad Ali؛
بهار 1383 - شماره 190 علمی-پژوهشی/ISC (12 صفحه - از 119 تا 130)
کلید واژه های ماشینی : In Communicative Language Teaching ، Ethnography Communication ، Ethnographic ، Chomsky ، Functional ، Sociolinguistics ، New Horizons Study Language Mind ، Formal ، Gumperz ، Hymes
Language is part of the culture of a people and the chief means by which the members of a language community communicate. Ethnography of communication is the study of the place of language in culture and society. This discipline is often considered as a branch of sociolinguistics and is closely related to ethnomethodology. Ethnographic description refers to knowledge available to members of speech community which is used, more or less consciously, to categorize persons, places and activities. Formal analyses in the ethnography of communication focus on supra-sentential elements: speech situations, the forms of speech events, the interrelations of speaker, addressee, audience, topic, channel and setting, and the ways in which the speakers draw upon the resources of their language to perform certain functions. This functional study is conceived as complementary with the study of linguistic structure. Functional analyses focus on larger social and cultural settings. In language teaching the concept of ethnography of communication has provided impetus to Communicative Language Teaching, especially through the notion of communicative competence.خلاصه ماشینی:
"The following types of data should be specified in any ethnographic research: 1) Background information including historical knowledge of the community, important historical and sociocultural landmarks, population distribution, religious affiliation, customs, social values, beliefs, cultural schemata, paralanguage elements, etc. Choices as to which language to use in a particular social situation, how to address an interlocutor, whether to delete or add sounds to words, whether to speak or remain silent, are not in free variation; but are patterned according to rules which are part of the social knowledge of a particular community. Where the linguist considers differences within speech community as ‘ free variation’, the sociolinguist considers some of them as systematically related to the social identities of the interlocutors, or the socio-cultural setting in which communication takes place. Like Chomsky’s reference to the ideal speaker and listener, the ethnography of communication too rests on a theory- a theory of speech as a system of cultural behavior and of …if our concern is social relevance and social realism, we must recognize that there is more to the relationship between sound and meaning than is dreamt of in normal linguistic theory. Formal analyses in the ethnography of communication focus on supra-sentential elements: speech situations, the forms of speech events, the interrelations of speaker, addressee, audience, topic, channel and setting, and the ways in which the speakers draw upon the resources of their language to perform certain functions."
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