"Key Words: description of Metaphysics, epistemology, existential knowledge, mental existence, truth of propositions, Mullā Sadrā Causal Inference and Proofs of Theism in Hume''''s Philosophy of Religion Muhmmad Fatali Khāni Using probability calculus, David Hume attempts to judge religious beliefs properly. The present article, which indeed deals with a discussion of Hume’s philosophy of religion, proves that Hume, in this conclusion, is subject to fallacy and begging the question. Key Words: causation, causal inference, probability calculus, Bayes’ theorem, Argument from design, Argument from miracles. Key Words: philosophy, motion, contingency, ontological argument Hermeneutics, Its Backgrounds and Developments Sayyid Muhammad Mūsavi In the 2oth century, the important developments in the history of philosophy of science are: the first debate, Positivism and Inductivism; the second debate, Karl Popper’s Refutationism and Lakatos’s research program; the third debate, Thomas Kuhn’s Structuralism and relativism; and the forth debate, Hermeneutics."
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