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فهرست مقالات

Ethics in Biotechnology مقاله


علمی-پژوهشی (وزارت بهداشت)/ISC (‎16 صفحه - از 18 تا 33 )


The most modern techniques in biotechnology owe their existence to the discovery of DNA cloning and the genetic manipulation of organisms. However Biotechnology is not new science In fact, many applications represent old practices with new methodologies. Human have been used organisms for their benefit in many processes for several thousand years. Therefore, one way of thinking about biotechnology is to consider two categories of activities: those that are traditional and familiar and those that are relatively new. Study of ethical and social concern in these categories makes this clear that there are many unanswered questions in this fields that requires caution regarding to public using of this technologies. Genetic manipulation (GM) especially cloning is a wonderful advancement in technology and knowledge. However, Professional and scientific societies should make clear that any attempt to create a child by somatic cell nuclear transfer and implantation into a woman's body would be at this time an irresponsible, unethical, and unprofessional act. The environmental safety aspects of GM crops vary considerably according to local conditions. Different GM organisms include different genes inserted in different ways. This means that individual GM foods and their safety should be assessed on a case-by-case basis and that it is not possible to make general statements on the safety of all GM foods.

خلاصه ماشینی:

"Keywords: biotechnology, cloning, GM organisms, genetic manipulation, ethics INTRODUCTION 1- Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Sci- B ence, International Islamic University Malaysia, iotechnology is most briefly defined Kuantan Campus, Jalan Istana, Bandar Indera as the art of utilizing living organ- Mahkota 25200, Kuantan, Pahang, MALAYSIA, isms and their products for the pro- duction of food, drink, medicine or 2- Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, International Islamic Uni- for other benefits to the human race, or other versity Malaysia, Jalan Gombak 53100, Kuala animal species. To use a specific definition, the American Medical Association (AMA) de- Ethical Issues of the Human Genome Project fined cloning as "the production of genetically Human Genome Project emphasized sequenc- identical organisms via somatic cell nuclear ing the entire human genome. ‘Somatic cell nuclear transfer’ refers ever, is controversial because of the high cost to the process which the nucleus of a somatic and because many critics believe that sequenc- cell of an existing organism is transferred into ing of huge amount of non-coding DNA an oocyte from which the nucleus has been should have low priority in a time of limited removed" (Council on Ethical and Judicial Af- funds for research. Student can develop The public and the elected representatives of "transgenic" animals -- those with genes from the National Biotechnology Directorate of another species, usually humans -- to test each country need greater knowledge and a treatments for life-threatening diseases."

کلیدواژه ها:

ethics ، cloning ، biotechnology ، GM organisms ، genetic manipulation

کلید واژه های ماشینی:

Iranian Journal Medical Ethics ، Biotechnology ، Biotech ، Ethical Issues Human Genome Project ، GM ، Human Genome Project ، Jaswir ، GMOs ، Genetic ، Ethical Issues Human Cloning

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