Sociological Analysis of Cybercrimes
پاییز 1395، سال یازدهم - شماره 2 علمی-پژوهشی (وزارت علوم)/ISC (15 صفحه - از 39 تا 53)
In recent decades, the world witnessed immense developments and progresses in electronic technologies. Computers and the internet have become necessary tools which are affecting all individual and social dimensions of peoples' lives. With the increased influence of the internet in peoples' lives and in societies across the world, internet and computer crimes have also risen. The peculiar nature and characteristics of cybercrimes as including trans-national and global dimensions, an absence of global agreement around a unified legal definition of cybercrimes, rapid pace of such crimes being committed, lack of certain procedures on mutual cooperation and high prices incurred by the discovery of such crimes have caused judicial and police authorities to face serious challenges. Hence, determination of the nature and the growth rate of such crimes as well as its outcomes seem necessary. The studies done in various human science areas could be promising in this field. The current article, using gathered documents methods, is an introduction to cybercrimes and aims to explore this issue as well as related statistics. It will also review sociological theories provided in this regard and explain these crimes as well. The theories examined will be discussed in form of three general categories of social structure, social process and social reaction.خلاصه ماشینی:
"One of the best sociological theories for explaining this situation is the social disorganization approach which attributes the emergence of internet deviancies in the society to lack of social rules as proportionate to the virtual world. In reality, social conflicts theories claim that the differential distribution of power in plural societies cause some groups enjoying border, anonymity, being automatic and the like have all shaped a distinct form of crimes, facing researchers and policy makers with serious challenges. Some studies and researches done on people and internet ordinary users and also financial and commercial companies can yield estimates in this regard as they provide statistics on such crimes. Social Theories on Cybercrimes Row Theory name Theory name Founder Theory properties 1 Social Social Emil Durkheim Criminal behavior is structure disorganization considered to be the theories theory individual's adjustment Pressure theory Robert Morton with conditions governing Pervert subculture Albert Cohen low class settings theory 2 Social process Differential link Edwin Sutherland Abnormality is considered theories theory as arising from humans' Social control Hershey interactions in daily social theory life 3 Social Label theory George Herbert Mid It is concentrated on a role reactions Alfred Schutz economic and social theories Conflict theory Marx entities have in creating abnormal behavior 4. This group of researchers have explained the emerging cybercrimes by using traditional theories and in this regard, Self-control Theory, Social Learning Theory and Lifestyle –Routine activities- Theory have contributed most (Golden, Nalla, 2014, p."
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