Comparison of Psychological Skills Using between Male and Female Volleyball Players during Exercise and Competition
Spring 2015, Volume 3 - Number 9 (4 صفحه - از 119 تا 122)
"c om ISSN (Online): 2322 – 4479 Comparison of Psychological Skills Using between Male and Female Volleyball Players during Exercise and Competition 1Akbar bohloul∗ 2SHahzad Tahmasebi Brojeni, 3Reihaneh Ezzati 1- MA student motor learning and control 2- PHD Assistant Professor motor behavior 3- MA student physical education INTRODUCTION Sport experts believe that sport performance has not been only affected by physical skills, but it is also influenced by psychological factors. The statistical population includes students participating in 12th Iranian students sport Olympia (summer 1393), and 89 person (48 females and 41 males) of them as a sample with a mean age of 3/1 ± 7/21 and the history of sports 03/3 ± 5/7 years in volleyball and completed the second version of the questionnaire performance strategies. RESULTS In comparison between male and female athletes significant difference was observed during exercise in the skills of goal setting (P = 0/02) and during competition in attention control(P = 0/008) and distraction (P = 0/000)."
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Instrument. In this study, the second version of the questionnaire performance Strategies (TOPS-
2) was used to measure psychological skills. The questionnaire consisted of 68 questions which covers both practice and competition conditions. 9 psychological strategies used in competition are: activation, automatic, emotional control, goal setting, imagery, negative thinking, relaxation, self-talk and distraction. Also strategies used in exercise included above mentioned items, with two differences: First, replace the negative thinking with attention control and the second difference, there factor distraction in competition. Hardy, Roberts and Thomas (2010) reported appropriate validity and reliability for this instrument (2). And Shahbazi, tahmasebi and motasharei (1392) examined validity and reliability of the instrument on the Iranian athletes, and it is recommended for use in sports science research.
Statistical analysis. Descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation), k-s test – to assess data normality - and independent t-tests to assess mental skills of male and female groups- was used. Significance level was P≤0/05.
In comparison between male and female athletes significant difference was observed during exercise in the skills of goal setting (P = 0/02) and during competition in attention control(P =
0/008) and distraction (P = 0/000).so, male performed better in goal setting and distraction and
female performed better in attention control (figure).
Figure. comparison between male and female athletes female
.(P≤0/05 ,P≤0/01 ,P≤0/001 )
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