شتاء ١٣٩٣ - العدد 20 علمی-پژوهشی/ISC (6 صفحه - از 173 تا 178)
Comparison ،contradiction ،descriptive comparison ،Alfia by Ibn Malek ،Alfiaby Rabiee ،learning syntax through poems ،didactic poems Preference ،Differentiation repetition ،war imagery ،modern Arabic poetry ،modern Persian poetry Paradox ،Adonis ،Verbal Paradox ،Moral Paradox Fertile land: responsibility ،courage
کلید واژه های ماشینی : Assistant Professor Arabic Language Literature، Alfia Ibn Malek Alfia Rabiee، Over asAlfiaby Ibn Malek، Student Arabic Language Literature، Arabic، Comparison Alfia Ibn Malek Alfia، This Al Arji، Ph D Literature Persian Arabic، Azarbijan ShahidMadani University، Images Fertile Al Arji
Over the past years poems which elaborate on syntax have had a considerable role in teaching syntax so much so that some of these poems such asAlfiaby Ibn Malek has been studied as a basic text by students for several centuries. But in the modern time and due to the availability of moderntextbooks, these works have lost their significance. By studying the method of presenting syntax and inflections in two of these collection of didactic poems and comparing the two, this research intends to point out considerable positive and negative aspects in them and, accordingly, make some suggestions about the presentational style in didactic poems, the most important of which arethe logical and educationally sound sequence of syntactic and inflectional lessons, clarity of meaning, the use of correct poetic meter, the use of expressive and easy words, focusing on relevant scientific content. Many different opinions about Arabic grammar and variety of grammatical types have contributed to probabilistic orientations in Arabic grammar. The dominant logic amongst grammarians, which asserts syntactic rules are not fixed and unchangeable, has supported it .Speech depends on its context in the first place and is governed by a powerful network of verbal and semantic relationships .This research puts some syntactic issues in a new perspective that are deliberated by earlier grammarians. It focuses on the motives of grammarians for probability amongst different types of syndetic structures and how language users choose the closest type to the right choice without damaging the meaning or changing the grammatical coder rules of eloquence. The article progresses in two directions: the descriptive direction, which explains probability in language; and the applicative direction, which explains how grammatical and syntactic forms ar used in action so that the most preferred form which fits the meaning and intention is chosen and used. Finally, the research emphasizes the importance of employing grammatical probability in all controversial linguistic issues and the necessity to take into consideration bothh the linguistic text and the semantic context. Repetition is the most prominent phenomenon in poetry, especially in poems of war. This technique can create various dimensions such as beauty and spirituality. Using a descriptive-analytic method the present study compares the function of ‘repetition’ in modern Arabic and Persian poems in creating war imagery in the final quarter of the twentieth century. The study wants to answer this question: what role does the repetition technique play in creating war imagery in modern Arabic and Persian poem? The study has employed the classification system of repetition by Iraqi poet and critic, Nazek Al Malaeke. He divided repetitions into three categories: declarative repetitions, division repetitions and unconscious repetitions. The main finding of the study is that repetition appears in various types (declarative repetition, division repetition and unconscious repetition) and the poets have not applied it as superficially. Declarative repetition and unconscious repetition in Persian poems are more frequent than Arabic ones; while Arab poets have applied division repetition more flexibly and strongly and Persian poets use this type of repetition only in their first stanzas. The vertical distribution of all the three categories of repetition is more frequent than its horizontal distribution, a fact which gives repetition more strength. Paradox is an apparent literary contradiction which dates back to an cientpoetry and prose, when man developed ataste for arts. Paradox is a figure of a speech which contradicts the popular opinion and its literal meaning is unknown to common people. The aim of its employment is to explain the goals of a scholar or poet, thus smoothing the way for him to effectively convey his thoughts to the reader. Paradox has been used for centuries but it was not used in systematically enough to be regarded an independent technique as it is today. This study discusses visual, verbal and moral paradoxes as well as the conditions of their application as specified by Adonis, a famous contemporary poet and scholar .The paradoxisabasiccompoundand its themeisbased on conflict. The paradoxisthe result of ajoint actionbetween a creator and the environment in which he creates. Adonis hastaken advantage of this phenomenon by expressivestyle to portray his ideas in a way which is different from other people before him. Adonisis a leadingfigure all fields of literature, poetry, criticism andis also distinguished for using verbalandintellectualparadoxes of optimism and pessimism. In this study, the researcher has used descriptive and analytical methods. This research aims to unveil the nature of human spirit and reflect the transformations that took place in the Omayyad society. These changes had a major influence on the poets’ thinking during that era. These changes are mirrored in the deep and sophisticated thinking and self-isolation of people, which is a significant feature of those living during the Omayyad era. This feature is portrayed clearly through the images of fertile lands in Al Arji’s poetry and is embedded in a deep knowledge which indicates a sense of responsibility and going beyond the mundane and habitual. This can, in turn, clarify the capability human beings to upgrade themselves and others. These images have also induced human solidarity and social unity and have helped people to obtain a determination and will which keep man attached to the land. This research also highlights the significance of artistic images as a main tool for the contemporary critical thinkers to understand poems and to unveil poets’ attitudes towards life. These images are considered as an important standard to assess the poetic experience. They also indicate the poet’s capability in conveying knowledge and pleasure to the reader.خلاصه ماشینی:
"A Comparison of Alfia Ibn Malek and Alfia Rabiee Mahmood khorsandi 1 ,Haydar Zohrab 2 Abstract Keywords: Associate Professor in Arabic Language and Literature, Semnan University, Iran. Grammatical Probability In Issues Related to Syntax Sami Awad 1 , Yusuf Abbood 2 Abstract Keywords: Professor in Arabic Language and Literature, Tishreen University, Syria. Assistant Professor in Arabic Language and Literature, University of Kashan, Iran. An Analytical Study of Verbal and Moral Paradoxes in Adonis's Poetry Hamid Valizadeh 1 , SakinehDagheleh 2 Abstract Keywords: Assistant Professor in Arabic Language and Literature, Azarbijan ShahidMadani University, Iran. MA Student in Arabic Language and Literature, Azarbijan ShahidMadani University, Iran. Images of Fertile lands in Al Arji’s Poetry Abdul Karim Yaqoub 1 , Lujain Bitar 2 Abstract Keywords: Professor in Arabic Language and Literature, Tishreen University, Syria. Student of Arabic Language and Literature, Tishreen University, Syria. Student of Arabic Language and Literature, Tishreen University, Syria."
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