بهار 1391 - شماره 45 علمی-پژوهشی/ISC (47 صفحه - از 201 تا 247)
Rivers affected by many factors such as geological features, hydrologic, geomorphologic, and how they exploit are subject to change. The most marked effects of changes in direction to channel erosion and lateral movement occurs as meanders. Obviously, unstable bed of a river channel and changes each year, a lot of damage to agricultural land, roads, bridges and generally to enter human structures. On the other hand a considerable amount of sediment to the reservoir of dams to pass. Hence, due to practical purposes the matter goes to the settlements around their homes have always been of interest to researchers. Methods and techniques used in the study centered on two general axes. Author(s)M. Yamani (()Associate Professor of Geomorphology, University of Tehran, Tehran, Irane-mail: email@example.comS. SharafiPh.D Student of Geomorphology, University of Tehran, Tehran, IranThe first axis of the river hydrological behavior often comes from the river morphometry. The second axis is the study of dynamic behavior in addition morphometry basin characteristics and stream function is morphology. In this study, effective factors in stability and erosion along the river in Lorestan province as a case study with the objectives of the process studied are located lateral erosion.2- MethodologyIn this study, to check the instability and erosion of Hor Rood River used aerial photographs (1955) and satellite images IRS (2006) as a comparison tool for Periodical changes. Furthermore, the geometric parameters used for show changes in river morphology and draw, measure, and has been calculated them. In this regard, we used software for calculating the geometric parameters, such as curves radius, the wavelength, the depth for the river changes direction in the study period. Also sediment samples taken from the river route and analyzed them in laboratory by granulumetry and morphometry methods and then compare with geological maps. the hydrological factors affecting geometrical changes and subscription funds, the path to the river was divided into three specific section. Then the periodical changes of Bed River correlated with the variables studied during a study period and communicate analytical methods and conclusions are given.3- Discussion Sediment samples taken at intervals of approximately 5 to 6 km from each other from the bed river and laboratory works on them shows that the particle size gradually from upstream to downstream side becomes more fine-grain. This phenomenon is common in rivers sediments. River sediments are generally coarse texture and some branches of the northern part of the main branches in some areas associated with coarse blocks. Transverse profile taken from bed river in three intervals drawn from upstream to downstream. These profiles show the upstream from broad bed change to a low gradient rectangular cross-section with vertical walls relatively high slope to change shapes. These changes do not show any correlation between Sediment condition and dynamics channel. This inconsistent subject formed the main problem of research.4- ConclusionGeometrical parameters indicate that changes in morphology and lateral erosion from section 1 to section 2 were decreased. But in the third section the bed river is straight and surrounded by river channel and its morphology changes much less than the other sections. Hydrological data also does not shows any correlation with the lateral erosion values of river channel from upstream to downstream. So that with increasing discharge and sediment from section 1 to the third section, the amount of lateral erosion and morphological changes in this direction is reduced. Being reversed results show that the channel morphology of the geological structure and lithology over the river dynamics are influenced.Desertification assessment and monitoring studies have focused on providing reliable data and information sources, to underscore the understanding of the causes of desertification, in order to forecast and combat future desertification, as well as to mitigate the effects of on-going processes. Seems whatever has most important in all of desertification studies is selecting, ranking, scoring and preference of desertification indicators to develop desertification indicator systems which is guideline to apply management projects to combat desertification process. Ranking objects is a simple and natural procedure for organizing data. Author(s)A. Sepehr (()Assistant Professor, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Ferdowsi University Of Mashhad (FUM) , Mashhad, Iran e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org & email@example.comM. R. EkhtesasiAssociate Professor, Faculty of Natural Resources and Desert Studies, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran S.A. AlmodaresiAssistant Professor, Faculty of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Yazd Branch, Yazd, IranIt is often performed by assigning a quality score to each indicator according to its relevance to the problem at hand. Ranking is widely used for indicator selection, when resources are limited and it is necessary to select a subset of most relevant objects for further processing. In real world situations, the object's scores are often calculated from noisy measurements, casting doubt on the ranking reliability. 2- MethodologyIn this paper have been introduced a Fuzzy-MCDM method for developing desertification indicator system. This paper tries to illustrate TOPSIS method for selection, scoring and preference of desertification indicators. In the first step, were identified the main desertification indicators based on main criteria. Then, to reduce uncertainty a triangular fuzzy set was applied for weighting borders of indicators. Ultimately a Fuzzy TOPSIS algorithm was developed. 3- DiscussionAccording to the applied Fuzzy-TOPSIS algorithm, the anthropogenic parameters such as human activities and land use alternations are main criteria to desertification process. Also to make a risk management pattern, attention to the pressure and state indicators must be notable. Another word, the results indicated the pressure and state indicators as main and high preference indicators for desertification risk management. Results indicated that selection of fuzzy borders can be a reliable way to reduce uncertainty. Also TOPSIS method of decision making is a suitable tool to rank indicators.4- Conclusion:TOPSIS proved to be a cost-effective and flexible method, as it provides a screening tool to identify, prefer and weight indicators for further investigation. However, this approach is not intended to substitute a scientific analysis of the indicators based on experimental research. After ranking indicators based on expert (and policy) relevance, they have then to be transformed into operational indicators, by conducting field research where necessary, to actually develop and integrate them into structured indicator sets. Furthermore, indicators can be selected and substituted to match the specific characteristics of each region. Since the land degradation conditions are various in different regions, the method can be applied with proper adjustment, provided the principal factors affecting desertification are identified and the relevant data layers are availableRecently the experts have paid their attentions to tail of frequency distribution of climate elements more than averages, because the changes in these characters have significant effects on intense and continuity of events. So that variations in climate elements could be followed through many qualifications such as extreme events or the tail of statistical distribution. Accordingly the weather extreme events are definite as rare and abnormal events (Bartolin et al 2008: 1752) which are far from the centre of distribution. Due to frequency, continuity and density of the climatic and weather extremes consequences on ecosystems, natural processes (weathering and erosion), and human society and because of their day to day increasing have gotten too much attention.Author(s)H. Asakereh(()Associate Professor of Climatology, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Irane-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgThe weather and climate extremes are one of serious challenges in human society during recent century. Accordingly many experts call them "social challenges" and they believe on the economic sustainable developments in providing managing the extremes (WMO 2009). Consequently study the extreme events make us powerful to understanding their tempo-spatial patterns as well as managing them to protect ourselves from negative consequences.2- MethodologyThe Extreme analyses in climatology are based on analyses of statistical distributions tails of daily observation of climatic elements. In other words to climatic extreme investigations it has to pay attention to low and height values. So it is necessary to investigate the daily extremes. Accordingly in this research using percentile index to determine extremes as well as absolute values, four extreme indices have been described for Zanjan precipitation during 1961-2006. So that the precipitation equal or less than 5th percentile, precipitation equal or more than 95th percentile, total of maximum precipitation and total precipitation of five greatest precipitations have been calculated for every year as indices of extreme precipitation. Finally the Generalized Extreme Distribution (GED) has been fitted on them.In this research has been attended on the maximum () and minimum () of precipitation time series (), in standpoint of change in distribution shape and its parameters. Accordingly three extreme distributions; Gumbel, Frichit and negative Weibull have been fitted on the data based on thickness, fatness and length of distribution respectively. To finding the distribution parameters it has been used the L-moment method which has introduced by Hosking and Wallis (1997).3- DiscussionFirst of all it has introduced the general characters of extreme precipitation in Zanjan. Based on the results of this stage of research it has cleared that low values of precipitation has shown decreasing trends as well as a jump in 1980. The high values of precipitation have shown stationary behaviours in general. Based on testing many distributions on the daily extreme precipitation in order to modelling the tail of probability distribution of extreme precipitation, it has cleared that GED is the best fitted model on the observations. The model has been fitted on four indices (precipitation equal or less than 5th percentile, precipitation equal or more than 95th percentile, total of maximum precipitation and total precipitation of five greatest precipitations) for all time series as well as for two halves of periods (1961-1983 and 1984-2006). The parameter of shape for 5th percentile showed the right skewness. It implicates that low values in this percentile more happened than the heights. This result is true for the second half of the period, but it is not for the first. The first half of the period has left skewness in 5th percentile values of precipitation. So the second half of the period has experienced decrease in precipitation in compare with the first half of period. In addition the scale parameter has shown greatest values in compare with the second and all the time series.All parameters of maximum precipitation for all of the period as well as for the halves of period indicated no significant changes. These results have been achieved for the five greatest precipitation amounts too. 4- ConclusionIn this paper in order to investigate the extreme precipitation of Zanjan city, the daily precipitation during 1961-2006 has been analyzed. Accordingly the thresholds of daily extreme precipitation have been definite based on Climate Variability and Predictability Project. In spite of stationary in trend, there have been many non- stationary characters as follow:- There is a 3 year cycle in the greatest 5-day rainfall total - There is a downward jump in the fifth percentile and its ratio to total precipitation since 1980. - The shape parameter of frequency distribution of two parts of fifth percentile of precipitation shows a change in skewness and scale parameter.- There is a similarity but lower change in 95 percentile of precipitation.Accordingly there is a reduction in lower and higher percentiles precipitation in Zanjan.The world is rapidly developing urban life. The rate of urbanization is highly progressing in developing countries compared with that of developed ones. Iran too, has faced urbanization in its rapid pace. This rapid step has with itself so many consequences for large cities specially Tabriz. Hence informal settlement plays fundamental role in reflecting urban studies. The one of problems is slum. The population total Tabriz city 400 thousand individual is informal settlement, that settling in city north, north- west, south and south-west. So that their consequence is appearance of not masons rule types instance urbanization. Author(s)A. Zangiabadi (()Associate Professor of Geography and Urban Planning, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Irane-mail: email@example.comO. MobarakiPh. D Student of Geography and Urban Planning, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, IranThe employment slum individual in catches undesirable, existence illegal construction, crime increase, cultural, social, economical, environmental pollution is of informal settlement undesirable resulting.2- MethodologyThe goal of research is analysis of effective factors in creation of slums in Tabriz city, their consequences and presentation of suitable methods for prevention of increase of informal settlement. We invoked survey study along with using libraries. The sampling was elected with the use of Quota. With was done randomly among 322 individual in north of Tabriz. In this research with due attention to society volume and variance calculated research important indices in stage of front test to be used for Cochran method and The data was analysis by SPSS software.3- DiscussionThe slum is one world phenomenon, reasons of creation slum is variation that to be possible to differ from place with another place. Migration is them important reasons. Effective factors on slum in Iran to mention social interruption to arise passage for sunna production method with capitalism production, manner of population and employment distribution in country, population many growth and them effective on population growth of metropolitans. In this research for analysis of Effective Factors in Creation of Slums in Tabriz City to produce three hypotheses; that interval of economical attracts of Tabriz city, economical and special repulsive before place have existence meaning connection with slum. The for Experience of hypotheses distributed questionnaires with method of Quota in the middle of slums, and for test of reliability of research questionnaires, with attention with use for specter Likert to be use for method of Cronbach Alpha. The Alpha calculated is for urban economical attracts .78 percent, for economical repulsive .71 percent and special repulsive .79 percent. Alpha calculated to show that question have for many stability.4- Conclusion The results of this study indicates that main important reasons slum in Tabriz city is unemployment, little income, housing of little rent and widespread migration of small city and village that is arising of economic factors (like economic attractions and obstacles of economic in villages) as well as socio- cultural obstacles related to previous zone. Informal settlement is deniable element in country metropolitans. In contact with this phenomenon must to abstain of unilateral and to effort on serious attempt with goal of science seeking a remedy of this phenomenon is needed. In reality must this phenomenon also to treat medically and also prevention. Than methods of presentation for prevention of informal settlement Select best for Tabriz city is capability Temperature as a hot intensity indicator is one of the main elements for recognizing weather. It is more changeable regard to erratic receiving solar energy by earth that is caused another wide change in other climatology elements (Kamali, 1381). One of the temperature change problem is its untimely vibration, especially temperature drop for freezing point which called frost. Attention to the frost subject is needed, especially in agricultural fields. The occurred frost during 6-15 Jan 2008 in the world was included Iran with drastic cold. This study aims to analyze strict cold at central Iran on 6 to 15 January 2008.Author(s)K. Omidvar (()Associate Professor of Climatology, Yazd University, Yazd, Irane-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgA. EbrahimiM.A. of Climatology, Yazd University, Yazd, IranIn spite of statistical study of this cold period, this study has been analyzed factors of synoptic producing drastic cold. During this period, strict cold affected all of Iran areas regarding central Iran. 2- MethodologyThere are various criteria for determining glacial intensity that many of them also are empirical. In this research, estimated the glacial severity based on agricultural products types of case study area that is often garden type. Whenever the weather temperature is -10 C and or less called sever glacial.The needed statistical data related to minimum absolute temperature are provided from Meteorological Organization. Earth levels and temp data were provided from NCEP/NCAR databases depend on climatology and oceanography organizations and drawing earth levels' maps , 850, 500 and 300 hpa for 1200UTC and 0000 UTC times and omega maps for 850 and 500 hpa in Grads software. In order to subtle studying of this phenomenon , also is used from above atmosphere data and parameters such as frost point temperature, mixture ratio, dry and humid potential temperature for assessment various days' air mass and air variable indicator , (ki, si) also are calculated on this day. For this purpose, it is used to temp data of Yazd synoptic station. The thermodynamic diagram (Skew-T) of cold climax day was drawn by Vayoming University site. 3- Discussion Statistical analyzing of severe cold in January 2008: With studying statistical glacial case 6 to 15 January 2008, it was recognized that this cold and glacial for frost, recording minimum temperature less than -10 C was pervasive in all country and weatherman said that cold with such intensity and widespread was precedence on 30 years ago. In order to study cold intensity in this frost period, minimum air temperature statistic during 6 to 15 January 2008 was used for 5 Kerman and Esfahan stations and 8 Yazd stations. On these regions, phenomenon was rainfall approximately and in many stations during frost days was reported minimum and maximum temperature under zero.In addition to temperature, report of synoptic stations in case study showed the reduction of air pressure for few days before starting frost. For example, on 3th pressure of Yazd synoptic station was 880/5 hpa, that this pressure at next day was raised to 820/4 hpa, i.e., so during 1day was reduced 40 hpa from air pressure. This is influx a strong low- pressure to region and on 5th January again with sudden pressure change. Yazd synoptic station reported the pressure 880/2.Synoptic analyzing of severe cold in January 2008: In order to analyze this cold period, has been drew air maps at 0000UTC and 1200 UTC for various atmosphere levels such as: earth level and 300 and 500 and 850 hpa and Omega maps of climax days. It was required to analyze various atmosphere levels roles from 6 to 15 January 2008.On 7th January was more intensity day during frost in studied areas.. Studying different atmosphere levels shown weather variable. Si variable indicator for Yazd synoptic station was showed number 3 on that day that signified air variable. It was recognized during next day’s also rainfall time, region atmosphere was variable and it was resistant in non-rainfall days together air frost. In 700 hpa level, temperature and mixture ratio were -15 and 1/2 that represented mA air mass. Studying effective synoptic factors in producing Severe Cold Wave on January 2008 which was clouded in all of Iran such as studied areas showed Sybri high-pressure activity and its rotation motions. This system was active more than 10 days on north Iran. Rotation mechanism governed with producing prevented system, which caused cold air over Iran. The maximum reported temperatures in 3 central provinces synoptic stations during frost also was less than 0 degree that showed severe cold wave was an advection frost. 4- ConclusionSynoptic study of this less history cold signified cold air from Russian to country. During snow day and frost, high-pressure was put over Russia on Caspian north and orderly with its rotation motion that was directed cold air across above toward Iran. This stationary air mass were governed over Iran north for 10 days and resistant this order with producing blocking, cold weather moved toward south (Iran) and are caused to cold weather remain over Iran for a long time. Also in many cases, it can be caused, cold north European weather directed toward Iran. Drawing and analyzing Omega maps of frost days has been approved acquired numbers from variable indicators. On other hand, during these days, continuously low- pressures are formed over Mediterranean , Black sea, Africa north, and even Caspian east including Mediterranean and sea black low-pressure. This system with taking humid from water sources such as Red sea, Persian Gulf and Oman Sea caused many rainfall and snow fall in Iran and also case study region. High-pressure both was formed in Arabian and southwest Iran, reinforced this low-pressures and finally caused rainfall and snowfall and making frost throughout country. Also, studies showed that in many central Iran, maximum temperatures not arrived above zero during frost period which showed severe cold wave was an advection frostTourism is most important issue of today's in societies, which challenged in political, economic and cultural situations and living method of human. According to world tourism organization annually more than 600 million people visit from attractive places of the world, that portion of Iran is 2 million. These Statistics are thinkable; as a result research in this regard is essential especially in Charmahal-va-Bakhtiary province that is one of the most attractive regions in Iran country. Ensuring the sustainability of tourism has become the main challenge of those involved in the development and management of this vibrant sector of activity. Author(s)M. Karami Dehkordi M.A. of Rural Development, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran A.A. Mirakzadeh(()Assistant Professor of Extension and Rural Development, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran e-mail: Mirakzadeh@razi.ac.irF. Ghiyasvand GhiyasiAssistant Professor of Agricultural Extension and Education, Islamic Azad University, Takestan Branch, Takestan, IranAlso the tourism is economic and social concept that it purchases and sale countries cultural and natural heritage and they can create more employment situations. Rural tourism is an appropriate option for create revenue and employment and positive changes in rural income. With regard to tourism importance in different context and also this issue that Iran in historical and cultural monument is one of 10 important countries in the word. And Iran in term of ecotourism attraction and climate diversity is one of five attractive countries in the word. We have a question that do we have conduct a survey in this province about factor affecting on tourism development? Do we conduct a survey about the target villager's problems from rural view point? Then analysis the information gathering from this target population that have direct interaction with rural tourisms to identify and analyze factor affecting on rural tourism development in Charmahal-va-Bakhtiary province is essential. The purpose of this study is investigating factors influencing on feasibility of tourism development from villagers viewpoint and then identifying challenges and barriers of tourism development. 2- MethodologyThe paradigm of this research was quantitative and the research design for this study was a descriptive and correlation method. Research population consisted all of villager's of Charmahal-va-Bakhtiary Province (N=21548) that based on Bartlett table 264 (supervisors) were selected as research sample with stratified sampling method. The independent variables in this research were all factors that influence on tourism development in Charmahal-va-Bakhtiary province and the dependent variable was villager's viewpoints about tourism development feasibility in this region. Questionnaire (that developed by researchers base on literature rearview) and interview consisted the means for data gathering. Reliability and validity were of instrument were confirmed and after data gathering data were analyzed by SPSS 15 and EXCEL software.3- DiscussionBased on the perception of the respondents and ordinal factor analysis, the factors were categorized into seven groups, namely public planning, participation, cultural-social, economic, healthy- environment, safety and advertisement- beneficiary that totally explained 72.04 percent of tourism development variations. Also the result of multiple regression showed that public planning, participation, cultural-social, economic, healthy- environment, safety factors were entered in equation and 67.2 percent of dependent variable (development rural tourism) variation were explained by these factors. Public planning is insurance to provide lifetime benefit of host society, guest (tourists), natural resources and cultural heritage conservation. In this research public planning explained more than 15 percent of dependent variable. On the most important in each society progress and applied research output is mention to people participation in problem solving. Also according to different researches in tourism issues show that tourism entrance in the society cause increasing in relationship and communication and increasing in people participation in social activities. One of the organizational dimensions of rural tourism management in Iran is develop cooperative of rural tourism in rural regions that can be operation to economic and cultural aims. 4- ConclusionResearchers believe that planning and management of tourism are intersection concept that comprehensive approach needs to intersection coordination between different sections. Then have been proposed to public support from rural tourism and actual planning in this context with persuasion private sector investment in this industry. More and better public service in fundamental affairs like accessible roads and facilitating access to rural regions, create appropriate residency and service centers with high quality for tourism and also pay attention by public office to rural with tourist attending and increasing facilities in rural can create job situation by this industry. However codify and performance comprehensive program in cultural, economic, legal, environmental and social dimensions study without public institutions sharing is not feasible. As cultural attraction is part of tourism attraction, in this regard was proposed:Predicating cultural aspects and dissemination it from different ways like hand writing, mass media and web as tourism development context in the region.Appropriate investigation of cultural and education sectors is appropriate contact with tourist.Renewable traditional jobs with indigenous culture like hand croft and provide it to tourist.Although advertisement and its beneficiary is the last factor that arrived in factor analysis but this component is most important factor in tourism development. Then persuasion local people to spontaneous action in context of advertisement in rural area by provide brochure, pictures for tourists in this regard is efficient. Educational use is one of the most important uses through the physical body of cities and is importance for this issue. The existence of educational use is accounted as an index element through the urban areas (Zarabi et al., 2009:46). Nowadays, with regards to population invasion to big cities and due to construction of whole urban lands and insufficient positioning of municipal services especially in educational centers, several problems have been caused in the field of youth and students services. So, optimal positioning of educational centers is necessary (Mikaeili; 2009: 6). Author(s)J. Mohammadi (()Assistant Professor of Geography and Urban Planning, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran e-mail: email@example.comH. PoorghayumiM.A. of Geography and Urban Planning, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, IranM. GhanbariM.A. of Geography and Urban Planning, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, IranAccording to the statistics of Fars educational organization within the year 1388, across the city of Kazeroun, there are only 31 schools with 4611 students. Now, the educational space of guidance schools is about 58005 m2 which is accounted as less than as 1percent.. This level of area in comparison with its optimum situation, 99117m2, shows 44112 m2 shortages (Consulting Engineers of Naghshe Mohit, 2009:53). So, the necessity of making new schools across the city of Kazeroun and their proper positioning is felt. 2- MethodologyThe descriptive- analytical method has been used in this research. All data have been collected by field observations, study of comprehensive models of Kazeroun city and educational organization of this city. Then, proper locations for constructing guidance schools were preceded using the GIS software and after information entry, data management and analysis them. 3- DiscussionIn this research seven following data layers have been used in order to proper positioning of guidance schools of Kazeroun city; involving proximity to communication network, proximity to urban green space, proximity to residential centers, proximity to cultural centers, distance from available guidance schools, locating across the proper land use, locating on proper slope. Table 1 shows the Rating to information layers according to distance.Table1. Rating to information layers according to distancescore distance in meters guidance Schools Residential areas Communication network Cultural centers Green spaces10 900+ 0-100 0-50 0-100 0-1009 800-900 100-200 50-100 100-200 100-2008 700-800 200-300 100-150 200-300 200-3007 600-700 300-400 150-200 300-400 300-4006 500-600 400-500 200-250 400-500 400-5005 400-500 500-600 250-300 500-600 500-6004 300-400 600-700 300-350 600-700 600-7003 200-300 700-800 350-400 700-800 700-8002 100-200 800-900 400-450 800-900 800-9001 0-100 900+ 450+ 900+ 900+Reference: Authors.For land use, has been rated the economical value and its proportion. For instance, sterile use is higher rated and commercial use is lower rated according to their lower and higher economical values, respectively. In the following, the optimal locations maps in order to build new guidance schools across the city of Kazeroun could be seen / As shown in the map1, major proposed locations for guidance schools construction are located at suburbs; because of suburbs in comparison with other places have higher grants. Considering with the shortage of these places, the construction of guidance schools in proposed areas not only will affect the development of whole city of Kazeroun but also can help citizens access to educational services. 4- Conclusion There are several causes in positioning of educational centers (guidance schools), which their different aspect analysis are not been possible by traditional methods. Therefore, geographic information system is necessary for a great deal of information analysis. Also, analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and geographic information system (GIS) have a high efficiency in the field of guidance schools positioning. This efficiency is not related to the comparison and estimation different locations and optimal place selection according to mentioned criteria. After revealing the problems of guidance schools positioning of Kazeroun using GIS, , analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and index overlap model have been used in order to position new guidance school buildings. Ultimately lands which are located in the city limits of the legal and privacy of Kazeroun were leveled and six locations were investigated for new schools. Then, using AHP, these six locations were preceded and best place was detected.Geographical information system (GIS); Analytical hierarchy process (AHP); Index overlap model IO); location; Guidance schools; KazerounReferencesAle Sheikh, Aliasghar & Helali, Hossein & Soltani, Mohammad Jafar (2002): GIS application in the areas of Flood, Journal of Geographical Research, number 4, Isfahan.Almaspur, Farhad (2000): Application of GIS and network analysis in location of pharmacies, case study: 6th district of Tehran, M.A. Thesis Geography and Urban Planning, Tarbiyat Modares University.Environmental role of Consulting Engineer, Detail Design of Kazeroon City, Kazeroon Municipal.Farajzadeh Asl, Manucher & Rostami, Moslem (2004): Assessment and location training urban centers by GIS Case Study: town teacher Kermanshah, Journal of Modares Human Science, Number 1, Tehran.Farajzadeh Asl, Manucher (2005): GIS and its application in tourism planning, Samt Publishing, Tehran.Hesamiyan, Farokh & Etemad, Giti & Haeri, Mohammadreza (1999): Urbanism in Iran, Aware Publishing, Tehran.Karami, Mohammadreza (2003): Location Technical and Vocational School by GIS, M.A. Thesis Geography and Urban Planning, Tabriz University.Khakpoor, Baratali & Velayati, Sadollah & Kiyannejad, Seyed Ghasem (2007): Changing pattern land use in Babol city during 1983-1999, Journal of Geographical & area development, number 9, Mashhad.Khandehroo, Javad (2003): Evaluation how to location user training secondary and high school levels in Mashhad by GIS, M.A. Thesis Geography and Urban Planning, Tarbiyat Moallem University.Lalehpoor, Manijeh (2002): Land use survey in urban planning by GIS case: education use (primary school) 8th zone Tehran, M.A. Thesis Geography and Urban Planning, Tarbiyat Moallem University.Lotfi, Sedigheh and Koohsari, M.J (2009): Analyzing accessibility dimension of urban quality of life: where urban designers face duality between subjective and objective reading of place, social indictors research (2009) 94: 417-435.Micaeli, Reza (2004): Location pattern of educational spaces Sari city by GIS, M.A. Thesis Geography and Urban Planning, Tarbiyat Moallem University.Nazari Adli, Saeeid & Kuhsari, Mohammad Javad (2007): Combining Boolean logic and AHP by GIS, Journal of face city, Number 40, Tehran.Ngai, E, W.T.E. W.C, Chan (2005): evolution of knowledge management tools using AHP, expert systems with applications.Plan and Budget Organization of Fars (1996): Fars faces (Kazeroon), Plan and Budget Organization of Fars Publishing, Shiraz. Purmohammadi, Mohammad Reza (2003): Urban land use planning, First Print, Samt Publishing, Tehran.Richard L. Church (2002), Geographical information systems and location science, Computer & Operations Research 29.Saeedniya, Ahmad (2004) Urban land use, Vol.2, Tehran.Salehi, Rahman & Mansoor, Rezaali (2005): Organizing spatial locations of teaching (high school) Zanjan city by GIS, Journal of researches Geography, Number 52, Tehran.Sanjari, Sara (2009): Arc GIS 9.2, Abed Publishing, Tehran.www.farsedu.irwww.sci.org.irZangiabadi, Ali & Mohamadi, Jamal & Safaei, Homayoon & Gaedrahmati, Safar (2008): Analysis of vulnerability indicators of urban housing in the earthquake, case study: Isfahan urban housing, Journal of Geographical & Development, number 12, Zahedan.Zarabi, Asghar & Ghanbari, Mohammad (2010): Health city, articles set 2th conference national Health city, code 75, Sabzevar.Zarabi, Asghar & Gholami Bimorgh, Younes & Musavi, Seyed Ali (2009): Land use survey Noorabad Mamasani city by GIS, Journal of urban and regional research, Number1, Isfahan.Zebardast, Esfandiar (2001): Application of AHP in urban and regional planning, Journal of Fine Arts, number 10, Tehran.Ziari, Keramatollah (2002): Urban land use planning, University Yazd Publishing, Yazd.Many scholars have called the present era as the era of information and communication technology. The effective roles and functions of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) as the centerpiece of many today’s developments is something undeniable. Undoubtedly, the impact of this technology is not limited to urban areas but it covers even the most remote rural areas as well. ICT expansion without special attention to the rural areas and deprived regions can cause some negative effects such as increased rural-urban gap, the rural-urban migration, loss of native industries, loss of local markets, and so on. So this technology is considered as one of the tools and infrastructures for a comprehensive development. Author(s)S.E. Seidiy (()Assistant Professor of Geography and Rural Planning, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgZ. Hedayati MoghadamPh.D Student of Geography and Rural Planning, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, IranIran’s country, along with many advanced countries, has taken steps to develop ICT rural areas, and put effort to provide public services in the most remote areas of the country. To that end many actions have been taken, that one of the most important ones is the performing of project: "The equipping of ten thousands country’s villages with ICT offices". In this connection the province of Isfahan since the project started in 2005, has established, equipped, and operated more than 400 rural ICT offices. Present work evaluates the role of ICT offices in providing services to rural areas. 2- Methodology Present research is among the applied researches and the dominant method used in this work is documentary and descriptive-analytical. In this study for the section of theoretical bases of the research, documentary method, and for obtaining the data and information, field methods were employed. For data analyses and results presentation Excel, SPSS and Arcview softwares were used. 3- Discussion Two questions that have been raised and tried to be answered in this work are: 1-What is the potential of the rural ICT offices in providing services to rural areas, and 2-What are the factors that affect the performance of the offices. Also two hypotheses: 1-Economic effects of the offices are more than their social and cultural effects, and 2-Success of the offices depends on the number of people living in the regions, are brought up and studied in this work. The region under study is the villages of Seen, Mehrgan, Mediseh and KabutarAbad in Isfahan province, with a population of 6139 of 16 to 65 years old ages, and based on that the number of statistical sample was chosen 236. 4- Conclusion The results of the study showed that despite having high potentials for giving various services in ICT offices, such as educational, health, agriculture, post, and bank services, the activities of the offices are mainly restricted to providing post and post-bank services, and from the villagers’ point of view the offices are just established for these two services. Even though these services are very important, other potentials of the offices in social and cultural dimensions which are mainly related to the use of internet in various activities are not still employed. Some factors like people’s knowledge of other possible services that can be provided in the offices, people’s point of views towards the role of the offices, and the managements have effect on the success of the offices. Also physical infrastructure, including the speed of internet and the required equipment has main effect on the performance of the offices. The results showed that the number of population has little impact on the ICT office success. The success was largely depends on the interest and knowledge of the people who work in the offices. Based on the results obtained in this work, using SWOT model, some proposals and strategies have been presented for improving and enhancement of offices performance. Early studies in geomorphology limitation in urban areas for the identifying of the physical development of city's such as a stable (very low risk), relatively stable (low risk) and unstable (high risk) and also very risky area has a major role in planning and urban management. In city planning, should circumstances change in any activity that is likely to trigger a mass movement is to be given, (Roostail and Jabbari, 1386, 85). According to Rajaee opinion (1373: 209), damage to buildings and structures are usually occurred are often not relevant to operations, engineering and architecture, but more than 90% of losses related to the replacement and location of buildings and structures is based on inaccurate site selection. Landslide in the Offsaran town, Neginpark and Valiasr in Tabriz in 1369 and 1370 caused the Author(s)M. Abedini (()Assistant Professor of Geomorphology, University of Mohaghegh Ardabil, Ardabil, Irane-mail: email@example.comE. MoghimiProfessor of Geomorphology, University of Tehran, Tehran, Irandestruction of more than 20 residential units and approximately 60 units were in danger of destruction, Abedini (1388: 42).2- MethodologyDue to the nature of this research, this study was done as form as documental, field work (Survey), and laboratory. First, with using topographic maps (1:50000) and air photos (1:55000) to do field work was done morphometric slopes. ThenThe survey, observation and field samples of their various headquarters in Tabriz for different characteristics of the soil formation was done to indicators liquefaction, plastic limit, with granolometry of soil formation and experiment. In addition to drawing this research maps Arc GIS software was used.3 –DissuasionNow a day due to geomorphologic limitations of Tabriz city in physical developing has been trend to section development such as Sahand and Marzdaran towns. Recently Baghmysheh, Roshdeh, Valiasr, Golpark, Fahmideh and, etc, due to vicinity to the North fault of Tabriz (the fault length is 170 km) and its branches on the mountain slope with loose marl formation are developing.Tabriz fault with the records of earthquakes and even 7.7 Richter, indicate the area is high risk. In the past much of the city site several times due to earthquakes according to fault activity extensively destroyed. Author's field laboratory results indicate a high percentage of clay 7 / 50%, silt 6 / 34 and the sign of plasticity (4. 40) in the West of the Tabriz neat the railway and Ajichyi River margins (Table 1). The existent of sand (%4. 41), clay (%15/32) Liquefaction Limit relatively is high (6.36) and plastic index (30.3) on the Valiasr Hill slope areas in the south East region of Tabriz and in Yagchyan indicates a potential instability in the Earth's tectonic stresses. Field studies result showed that the old alluvial alluvium with some combination of large and medium stones with a lower fine-grained matrix in the North West Airport reliable platform for future sectoral development is suitable. Subsidences of some structures, walls crack, and so is evidence of instability Baghmisheh Parks, Valiasr, and Golpark, etc.Table 1. Results Granolometry soil texture to determine the extent and locations sampled them.Sampling area Sand present Clay present Silt present Liquefaction Limit PI- Plasticity IndexWest of Tabriz (AjiChyi bank) 21 50.7 34.6 42.12 40.34Tabriz university area 38 24.25 21.2 28.22 27.3Center of Tabriz 33.3 38.3 26.4 31.7 30.11Valiasr in north east of city 41.4 32.15 28.32 36.6 30.3Roshdeh in the north of city 39.34 48.42 34.5 37.3 34.64 – ConclusionDue to space restrictions in the physical development of Tabriz, topographic, geomorphic, and limitation in the industrial, commercial centers, and manufacturing city in the margins (as a gap), are very sensible. The range of mountains Oveneabn Ali in the north of Tabriz (the surfaces inclined between 10 to 25 degrees), with receptively layers of salty marl, limestone, sandstone and conglomerates during occurrence of earthquake and rainfall heavy, causing displacement of a material (rupture, slip, Soilefluation and liquefaction (Ticsotrophy phenomena) and will be exert damage to the foundation of urban buildings. The slope deposits in North, North East and southern parts of Tabriz concluded unstable and disproportionate to the construction and urban structures are considered.Today the site of Tabriz city due to the rapid development of urban land use d are contacted with varied topography and hydro- geomorphology situation problems. So would be avoiding from heavy and high constructions in the vicinity of active faults. Because of heavy investments in the region with alternating layers of marl slope (contains salt and limestone), sandstone, conglomerates and settlements ValiaAsr and Rshdyh, Fahmideh and so on, not only to intensify the risks are hydro geomorphology but also during a strong earthquake caused to Liquefaction occurs, as well as movements in the slope layer and lead to the destruction of buildings. Therefore the from construction of the huge building on slopes greater than 20 degrees lands, especially in eastern and northern parts of East Tabriz must be avoided, because those slope pediment land areas have a loose marl and active faults.Every earth movement affects the earth surface suddenly and slowly. Geomorphic changes are in relationship with tectonic-geomorphology directly or indirectly (Sumerfield, 1991). Earth's crust movement is an effected factor for forming and evolution of landscapes. Geomorphic characteristic can be good indicators to predict regional active tectonic. West Alborz is located between 49 to 50'30 East between Khasar pediment in north and Qazvin pediment in south. In this paper have been studied active tectonic with geomorphic indices, drainages pattern and alluvial sediments in 30 watershed basins. At the first have been determined the geomorphic indices and combined with another factors like drainage patterns and alluvial fan systems. Author(s)A.A. Zare Mehrjerdi (()Assistant Professor of Geomorphology, Islamic Azad University, Meybod Branch, Meybod, Iran e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgThen factors and indices have been compared in all of the basins. Ultimately, west Alborz regional segmented to three local like; active, semi active and inactive basins. 2- MethodologyAt first step, have been used topographic map and Landsat images, the topographic scale map was 1:250000 and 1:50000 and the satellite image scale was 1:250000 and 1:100000. Then using Google Earth the border of watershed basins has been determined. By assessments of geomorphic indices like Stream Length-gradient (SL), Mountain front sinuosity (Smf), ratio of valley-floor width to valley height (VF) and Hypsometric graphs in 30 watershed basins in west Alborz area, the active ratio estimated. With comparing data have been distinguish active tectonic and tectonic geomorphology of west Alborz.3- Discussion Studying all of the geomorphic indices in west Alborz area have been divided to 30 watershed basins and studying most important geomorphic indices determined the active ration like: 1-The mountain front sinuosity which mentioning and characterizing relationship between rivers power and mountain front dip and slop was calculated by equation that in the formula Smf is mountain front sinuosity and Ls is direct mountain front (m or Km) and Lmf means the length of mountain front. 2-Stream length-gradient (SL) has been estimated by formula of SL=ΔH/ΔL×L (Keller,1980) SL: Stream length-gradientL: The length of riverΔH/ΔL is stream gradient in section that studying it.3-Ratio of valley-floor width to valley height (Vf) was predicted by below formula Vf=2 Vfw/[(Eld-Esc)+(Erd-Esc)] (Boll,1987)Vf is ratio of valley-floor with to valley height Vfw= Width riverErd= the height of right wall of riverEld= the height of left wall of riverEsc= the elevation of valley-floor4-The drainage basin asymmetric (Af) that mentioning relation between active faulting and tilting the basin (Keller,1980), was calculated by formula of AF=Ar/At×100 that Af- is drainage basin asymmetric, Ar-means area of drainage pattern in left of essential river(Km2) At-is area of drainage pattern in right of essential river (Km2) 5-Hypsometric graphs introduced by Strahler(1952). This parameter mentioned topographic elevation in this region.With modulation all of data and assessment geomorphic indices were distinguishing the activity of watershed basins.4- ConclusionA: Activity was distinguished for several ways like uplift zones for example alluvium fans and the new alluvium step rivers slop and the ground in lineament fault trace.B: The new and uplifted alluvium fan distinguished in Qezel Owzan River which was constituted by active faults.C: There are many rectangular and trills drainage patterns in the west Alborz that constitute with active faults and effectiveness from active tectonics.D: Comparison of the activeness geomorphic indices in 30 watershed basins conduced to the below results:1-The basins like Velankuh, Pakdeh, Dramkhani, Cheshmahrud, Siahkuheballaey, Takas, Khasrud, Chelegan, Zereshk, Zarigan and Zardgoli are active basins.2-The basins like Haftcheshmah, Rudbarepaeen, Siahkuhepaeini, Parudbar, Changaldasht, Alinezam, Khorramabad, Shahmoallem, Surankhani, Faragabad, Kuhkan, Qeshlaq, Saravan, Golenkesh are semi active basins.3-The basins like Foumansharqi, Rizagarab, Merzonsar are the inactive basins.E: The basins in east area are more activity than west.خلاصه ماشینی:
"Integrating multi-criteria techniques with geographical information systems in waste facility location to enhance public participation, Journal of Waste Management & Research, Vol 24: 105-117 Hurley W. Development of Desertification Risk Managenet Pattern under Uncertainty, Ph. D Thesis, University of Isfahan Frequency Distribution Change of Extreme precipitation in Zanjan City H. Zangiabadi, Ali and et al, (2007), the analysis economical- social reasons slum in Isfahan city, journal of humanities sciences, vol18, Isfahan University. (2007), Analysis of radiation frost date and the end - advection and advection in the East and West Azerbaijan provinces, Journal of Research and development in agriculture and horticulture, vol. Z. Hedayati Moghadam Received: July 15, 2010/ Accepted: June 14, 2011, 39-42 P Extended abstract 1- Introduction Keywords: References Benjamin, Peter & Dahms, Mona, (1999), Socialize the modem of production: The role of telecenterism development; Report of an International Meeting on Telecenter Evaluation, September 28-30, Far Hillis Inn, Quebec, Canada , available online on http ://www. Khosravi, Mahboobeh & Ebrahimi, Zahra, (2004), "E-Learning in Rural" Conference on ICT Applications in Villages, Puplisher Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran. C. Rarejany, Baghar & Eiman rahimi, (2004), "The Necessity of using the ICT in providing health services to Remote Area", Conference on ICT Applications in Villages, Publisher Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran. E. Moghimi Received: January 4, 2011 / Accepted: September 13, 2011, 43-47 P Extended abstract 1- Introduction Keywords: References Abedini Mousa, (2006), Analysis of the land use in the Ardebil tourist city due to the environmental potentials (with emphasizing on the geomorphic problems of urban site."
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