نویسنده: Peter John Lioyd؛
Autumn 2011 & Winter 2012, Volume 39 - Number 2 علمی-پژوهشی (وزارت علوم)/ISC (16 صفحه - از 1 تا 16)
کلید واژه های ماشینی : UN Framework Convention Climate Change ، WTO ، Nations Framework Convention Climate Change ، DDR Climate Change Negotiations ، United Nations Framework Convention Climate ، Climate Change ، Kyoto Protocol Developed US Annex ، Doha Development Round ، Doha Development Round Developing Country ، Developing Countries
This paper examines the two most important current efforts to devise new rules binding all nations; the negotiations in the WTO of trade rules and the negotiations under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change to devise rules restricting the annual emissions of greenhouse gases. Both negotiations have failed after several years of intensive effort. There are remarkable parallels in these negotiations. Both have used the same approach to negotiations; consensus decision-taking, a bottom-up approach and differential treatment of Developing Countries, and complex modalities. These features have made the negotiations tortuous. Major changes in international relations have made agreement impossible to date: large global market imbalances and changes in geopolitical balances have produced a general distrust among major parties and an absence of leadership. What is needed most of all is a common or shared vision of the gains from binding multilateral rules for the world economy.خلاصه ماشینی:
"Multilateralism after the Failure of the DDR and Climate Change Negotiations Peter John Lloyd Department of Economics, University of Melbourne, Australia Abstract This paper examines the two most important current efforts to devise new rules binding all nations; the negotiations in the WTO of trade rules and the negotiations under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change to devise rules restricting the annual emissions of greenhouse gases. It recognised the need to keep global warming below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial times, committed Annex I countries to a vague strengthening of Kyoto Protocol targets but did not set new targets, spoke of "opportunities to use markets" in place of any specific cap and trade mechanism, announced a goal of a US $100 billion fund to assist Developing countries to fund mitigation, adaptation and technology transfer without specifying the contributions of individual developing countries to the fund, advanced a weak compliance scheme limited to mitigation actions carried out with international support. There is also a direct link between climate change policy and trade policy because the doctrine of common but differentiated responsibilities in the UNFCCC negotiations is leads to loss of trade competitiveness in countries with higher carbon prices and thence to demands for border tax adjustments. a. All developing countries 22 Sources: Column (2): NAMA average applied tariff rates: Hufbauer, Schott & Wong (2010, Table 2145) Column (4): Agriculture average trade reduction index: Lloyd, Croser, & Anderson (2009, Table 11."
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