نویسنده مسئول: Mahdavi.Zafarghandi، Amir ؛
English for Academic Purposes Autumn 2015, Volume 4 - Number 1 علمی-پژوهشی (وزارت علوم)/ISC (12 صفحه - از 37 تا 48 )
Research on multiword clusters (chunks) is based on the assumption that native speakers use plenty of chunks in their everyday language and they are considered as fluent speakers of language. Therefore the present study was an attempt to investigate the impact of using chunks on speaking fluency of Iranian EFL learners. In the first phase of the study, the students of two intermediate classes sat for a general proficiency test and then were interviewed for their speaking ability. Next, the two groups were statistically compared in terms of their general proficiency and speaking fluency which indicated that they belonged to the same population. The 18-session instruction of the control and experimental groups included the same content and skills, but the experimental group received training on how to use chunks. At the end of the instruction period, the participants were interviewed once again in a posttest to track possible differences in their speaking improvement with respect to the frequency of chunks. The findings showed that the treatment had significantly improved speaking fluency of the experimental group and that there was a direct correspondence between the number of the chunks used and the listeners' perception of the participants` speaking fluency.خلاصه ماشینی:
Therefore the present study was an attempt to investigate the impact of using chunks on speaking fluency of Iranian EFL learners. According to commentary on speaking fluency, the complexity of speaking task and also familiarity of the topic have significant role on second language speakers’ ability to form lexis, syntax, and access chunks without false starts and undue hesitations (Pawley & Syder, 2000; cited in Gorsuch, 2011). Fillmore, Kempler, and Wang (1979) defined fluency as the ability to talk coherently at length without pause about a broad range of contexts and also the ability to be creative in language use. Researchers pointed to different aspects of fluency such as pausing and hesitation (Ellis & Barkuizen, 2005), automaticity and conversational speed (Hartman & Stork, 1976), and ready- made chunks (McCarthy, 2005). Foster (2001; cited in Nattinger & DeCrrico, 1992) concluded that English speakers must master the formulaic language to a certain extent since they are so widespread in English discourse and these multi word units must be included in teaching materials as well. The second category of participants consists of two teachers, with fifteen years of teaching experience on average, who have acted as examiners measuring the students speaking fluency. 3. 2 Data collection instruments Four different instruments were used in the present study: (1) Oxford placement test, (2) IELTS speaking evaluation sheet with band core descriptors, (3) Tables of two, three, four, five and six word clusters, and (4) Interviews. Do I speak better?: a longitudinal study of lexical chunking in the spoken language of two Japanese students.کلیدواژه ها:
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